The Current State of Affairs

And a new hope
——
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08.09.2017. The Future World Order 
It becomes increasingly difficult for the West to impose its political systems and cultural and human values.
 

A few days ago I spoke at a seminar attended by renowned and unorthodox scholars from Russia and the West. The topic of my presentation was “What Will There Be after the ‘Liberal Global Order?’” I think this should be interesting for the public at large as well. So let me begin with the obvious. 
Russia has been accused of destroying the post-war liberal world order. This is fundamentally wrong in many respects. There were two world orders after the war. One was liberal-democratic and capitalist, led by the United States. The other one was socialist, led by the Soviet Union. Russia led the way in destroying the latter, certainly not the former, even though its disappearance as a counterbalance eventually started eroding the former as well. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, “a liberal global order” was proclaimed and upheld for a short while. And it is true that Russia had a hand in ruining it with its independent policy and actions in Ukraine and Syria. But it did the right thing. What was that “liberal order” like? It was a brief period of U.S. and Western hegemony in the world, and there was nothing liberal, i.e. free, about it. It was stated, and forced upon dissenters, that the world should be governed exclusively by the Western political templates and Western values. 

The West had assumed the right to speak on behalf of the international community. If this is freedom, then what is unfreedom? World communism professed a similar doctrine in the twentieth century. Prior to that, crusaders and colonizers had tried to impose Christianity, now half-forgotten in the West, plundering along the way, of course. It was not an “order” but rather the law of the jungle in its worst form. 

International law and norms of interstate relations were viciously trampled upon. In 1991, Germany and then the European Union as a whole recognized the independence of Croatia and Slovenia which had broken away from Yugoslavia. Such unilateral recognition was completely against international law and became one of the factors that triggered a civil war in Yugoslavia. In 1999, NATO bombed defenseless remains of the country for 78 days. 

The West then recognized the independence of Kosovo, which had been torn away from the country and where no one bothered even to hold a referendum on separation. In 2003, most NATO countries invaded Iraq under false pretext, killing hundreds of thousands of people and ultimately destabilizing the entire region for decades. In 2009, the aggression against Libya plunged it into chaos which it has been unsuccessfully trying to overcome ever since. All this was accompanied and followed by numerous escapades to support and provoke color revolutions, most of which caused turmoil and suffering among people. Ukraine is the latest example. Europe tried to cement the “liberal order” through constant enlargement of Western alliances, especially NATO, which would inevitably have led to a big war on the continent, as many had repeatedly warned, if it had continued a bit longer into the territories which Russia considered vitally important for its security and survival. The most outrageous actions occurred when Russia’s weakness impaired the deterring role of its nuclear potential. Russia was no longer reckoned with. 

The situation has changed since then. Having provoked a crisis in Ukraine, the West did not dare go further, as it quickly realized that Russia was now able to “dominate in escalation” and it would inevitably lose if Russia started raising the stakes. But the West’s attempts to establish its hegemony were doomed without any steps on the part of Russia which had stopped the expansion of Western alliances in Ukraine and a series of “color” regime changes in Syria. Its actions only highlighted (which made them especially frustrating) the loss of dominant positions in the world political and economic system the West had held for the last five hundred years. There were many reasons for that. I will only name the most profound one, which, as far as I know, has almost never been mentioned before.The dominance of Europe and the West in general was based mainly on its military superiority achieved around the sixteenth century. Using their supremacy, Europeans started a global colonial and neocolonial expansion, imposing Christianity, their political rules and free trade along the way. 

But it was they themselves who became the main beneficiaries of their free trade. The most vivid example of this policy was the “opening up” of China, at gunpoint, to opium trade from the British Raj. In exchange for the opium Europeans received silk, porcelain ware, and other goods. Millions of Chinese subsequently died from opium. When England, which had commanded the seas for centuries, lost leadership to the United States, the latter led the way in advancing “free trade,” based on its own rules, using not only its economic power but also military supremacy in the non-socialist world. 

When the Soviet Union ceased to exist, it seemed that the liberal economic order would spread to the rest of the world, ushering in a splendid end of history for the West.The main reason why this illusion collapsed is that the hitherto hidden tendency came to the surface the foundation upon which the global liberal economic order ― military supremacy ― began to crumble. Mutual nuclear deterrence between Russia and the United States, and now with China, India, Pakistan, Israel, France, and Great Britain, coupled with other factors, makes big wars almost impossible as they threaten to obliterate mankind as such. It also precludes wars against the leaders of the new world ― former colonies or semi-colonies ― with not only their own nuclear arsenals but also a major nuclear and military power, Russia, standing invisibly behind them and quite palpably behind China.

 With the foundation destroyed, countries have to compete at higher political and economic levels where the newcomers get more and more competitive advantages. Europe is obviously losing the race and so is America. This largely explains the Trump phenomenon. The forces behind him are seeking to get out of the system their own country created, because it is no longer as beneficial as it used to be. This leads to new protectionism, the politicization of economic relations and attempts to foil positive economic interdependence in Europe, based on Russian natural gas supplies in exchange for European goods. Sanctions become a new norm in Western politics. The world is living through an exciting and frightening period when three world orders are tumbling down at the same time. The system of two bloc confrontation is about to crumble despite attempts, unsuccessful so far, to revive it in Europe and build a new one along China’s eastern perimeter. The “liberal global order” of the 1990s and early 2000s is agonizing. The liberal global economic order, which no longer satisfies its creators, is in jeopardy, even though many other new leading players find it beneficial and do not want to give it up. The future is unpredictable as it has always been. But let me try to fantasize about what it may look like in fifteen years from now, unless the current convulsions push the world into a global nuclear catastrophe, of course.

 Many things will change, not only technologies as everyone guesses. Changes will also take place in the military-political foundation upon which a new world order will stand. North Korea is acquiring, quite predictably, a nuclear status in front of our very eyes. This had to be expected after Iraq and Libya had abandoned their nuclear programs and had been laid to waste. South Korea and Japan will also seek to obtain this status and will most likely get it in several years’ time not only because of the North Korean factor and an objective decline in the reliability of their main ally, the United States, but also in order to make up for the growing power of China. If the policy of constant threats and pressure against Iran persists, it, too, will obtain nuclear weapons sooner or later. In addition to nuclear weapons, some countries will also acquire, if they have not done it yet, cyber weapons that can cause damage comparable to that from nuclear weapons and ability to destroy entire societies. One can wring his hands and stubbornly say that this should not happen. But the odds are it will happen for many reasons, including mistakes made when nuclear powers attacked countries that had abandoned nuclear weapons. But we can also look at this reality from a different angle. The history of the last seventy years is, inter alia, the history of the proliferation of nuclear weapons: the United States was first, followed by the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, China, Israel, India, Pakistan, and now North Korea. Mankind has survived mainly because mutual nuclear deterrence kept it from self-destructive wars which were so common in its history. Let me use a metaphor that is not related to geostrategic analysis. Apparently, appalled by the doings of His children who had started two world wars within the lifespan of one generation, God gave mankind the weapon of Armageddon in order to keep it from total self-destruction. If cyber weapons are indeed as fatal as many suspect, they may strengthen mutual multilateral deterrence after a period of instability and fears. 

And then mankind will continue moving towards a new world order. Most countries do not want to give up liberalism in trade. In fact now that the United States has withdrawn from the Trans-Pacific Partnership, it initiated several years ago, other countries are trying to recreate it without America. This world order will be much freer than the present one, which is already much freer than the previous ones. It becomes increasingly difficult to impose political systems or cultural and human values, and this deeply frustrates the West. It will be a dangerous and long journey over the next fifteen years or so. It would be much better to start building a new world order model based on the Greater Eurasian Partnership, which also incorporates Europe, proposed by Russia and supported by China, and on China’s One Belt – One Road initiative supported by Russia. Nothing new is likely to be conceived in the old Atlantic community. All nuclear (and probably other major and sovereign) powers should urgently start discussing in earnest how to maintain international strategic stability during the long transition to a new world order. New powers, primarily Eurasian ones, will have to lead the way in this dialogue. The old Russia has collapsed but a new one has emerged and should take its place among them, too. However nothing can be achieved without the United States. We can only hope that it will break out of its collective madness sooner or later. Until then it will have to be contained most rigorously. If consensus is reached on a new military-political foundation, the future world order may be much better than most of the previous ones. And it may also be beautiful just like my beloved Congress of Vienna of two hundred years ago.// Published in Rossiiskaya Gazeta on September 7, 2017
A few days ago I spoke at a seminar attended by renowned and unorthodox scholars from Russia and the West. The topic of my presentation was “What Will There Be after the ‘Liberal Global Order?’” I think this should be interesting for the public at large as well. So let me begin with the obvious. 
Russia has been accused of destroying the post-war liberal world order. This is fundamentally wrong in many respects. There were two world orders after the war. One was liberal-democratic and capitalist, led by the United States. The other one was socialist, led by the Soviet Union. Russia led the way in destroying the latter, certainly not the former, even though its disappearance as a counterbalance eventually started eroding the former as well. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, “a liberal global order” was proclaimed and upheld for a short while. And it is true that Russia had a hand in ruining it with its independent policy and actions in Ukraine and Syria. But it did the right thing.   
What was that “liberal order” like? It was a brief period of U.S. and Western hegemony in the world, and there was nothing liberal, i.e. free, about it. It was stated, and forced upon dissenters, that the world should be governed exclusively by the Western political templates and Western values. The West had assumed the right to speak on behalf of the international community. If this is freedom, then what is unfreedom? World communism professed a similar doctrine in the twentieth century. Prior to that, crusaders and colonizers had tried to impose Christianity, now half-forgotten in the West, plundering along the way, of course. 
It was not an “order” but rather the law of the jungle in its worst form. International law and norms of interstate relations were viciously trampled upon. In 1991, Germany and then the European Union as a whole recognized the independence of Croatia and Slovenia which had broken away from Yugoslavia. Such unilateral recognition was completely against international law and became one of the factors that triggered a civil war in Yugoslavia. In 1999, NATO bombed defenseless remains of the country for 78 days. 

The West then recognized the independence of Kosovo, which had been torn away from the country and where no one bothered even to hold a referendum on separation. In 2003, most NATO countries invaded Iraq under false pretext, killing hundreds of thousands of people and ultimately destabilizing the entire region for decades. In 2009, the aggression against Libya plunged it into chaos which it has been unsuccessfully trying to overcome ever since. 
All this was accompanied and followed by numerous escapades to support and provoke color revolutions, most of which caused turmoil and suffering among people. Ukraine is the latest example. Europe tried to cement the “liberal order” through constant enlargement of Western alliances, especially NATO, which would inevitably have led to a big war on the continent, as many had repeatedly warned, if it had continued a bit longer into the territories which Russia considered vitally important for its security and survival.  
The most outrageous actions occurred when Russia’s weakness impaired the deterring role of its nuclear potential. Russia was no longer reckoned with. The situation has changed since then. Having provoked a crisis in Ukraine, the West did not dare go further, as it quickly realized that Russia was now able to “dominate in escalation” and it would inevitably lose if Russia started raising the stakes.   
But the West’s attempts to establish its hegemony were doomed without any steps on the part of Russia which had stopped the expansion of Western alliances in Ukraine and a series of “color” regime changes in Syria. Its actions only highlighted (which made them especially frustrating) the loss of dominant positions in the world political and economic system the West had held for the last five hundred years.  
There were many reasons for that. I will only name the most profound one, which, as far as I know, has almost never been mentioned before.
The dominance of Europe and the West in general was based mainly on its military superiority achieved around the sixteenth century. Using their supremacy, Europeans started a global colonial and neocolonial expansion, imposing Christianity, their political rules and free trade along the way. But it was they themselves who became the main beneficiaries of their free trade. The most vivid example of this policy was the “opening up” of China, at gunpoint, to opium trade from the British Raj. In exchange for the opium Europeans received silk, porcelain ware, and other goods. Millions of Chinese subsequently died from opium. 
When England, which had commanded the seas for centuries, lost leadership to the United States, the latter led the way in advancing “free trade,” based on its own rules, using not only its economic power but also military supremacy in the non-socialist world. When the Soviet Union ceased to exist, it seemed that the liberal economic order would spread to the rest of the world, ushering in a splendid end of history for the West.
The main reason why this illusion collapsed is that the hitherto hidden tendency came to the surface the foundation upon which the global liberal economic order ― military supremacy ― began to crumble.  
Mutual nuclear deterrence between Russia and the United States, and now with China, India, Pakistan, Israel, France, and Great Britain, coupled with other factors, makes big wars almost impossible as they threaten to obliterate mankind as such. It also precludes wars against the leaders of the new world ― former colonies or semi-colonies ― with not only their own nuclear arsenals but also a major nuclear and military power, Russia, standing invisibly behind them and quite palpably behind China.  
With the foundation destroyed, countries have to compete at higher political and economic levels where the newcomers get more and more competitive advantages. Europe is obviously losing the race and so is America. This largely explains the Trump phenomenon. The forces behind him are seeking to get out of the system their own country created, because it is no longer as beneficial as it used to be. This leads to new protectionism, the politicization of economic relations and attempts to foil positive economic interdependence in Europe, based on Russian natural gas supplies in exchange for European goods. Sanctions become a new norm in Western politics.  
The world is living through an exciting and frightening period when three world orders are tumbling down at the same time.    
The system of two bloc confrontation is about to crumble despite attempts, unsuccessful so far, to revive it in Europe and build a new one along China’s eastern perimeter. The “liberal global order” of the 1990s and early 2000s is agonizing. The liberal global economic order, which no longer satisfies its creators, is in jeopardy, even though many other new leading players find it beneficial and do not want to give it up.       
The future is unpredictable as it has always been. But let me try to fantasize about what it may look like in fifteen years from now, unless the current convulsions push the world into a global nuclear catastrophe, of course.  
Many things will change, not only technologies as everyone guesses. Changes will also take place in the military-political foundation upon which a new world order will stand. North Korea is acquiring, quite predictably, a nuclear status in front of our very eyes. This had to be expected after Iraq and Libya had abandoned their nuclear programs and had been laid to waste. South Korea and Japan will also seek to obtain this status and will most likely get it in several years’ time not only because of the North Korean factor and an objective decline in the reliability of their main ally, the United States, but also in order to make up for the growing power of China. If the policy of constant threats and pressure against Iran persists, it, too, will obtain nuclear weapons sooner or later. In addition to nuclear weapons, some countries will also acquire, if they have not done it yet, cyber weapons that can cause damage comparable to that from nuclear weapons and ability to destroy entire societies.  
One can wring his hands and stubbornly say that this should not happen. But the odds are it will happen for many reasons, including mistakes made when nuclear powers attacked countries that had abandoned nuclear weapons. 
But we can also look at this reality from a different angle. The history of the last seventy years is, inter alia, the history of the proliferation of nuclear weapons: the United States was first, followed by the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, China, Israel, India, Pakistan, and now North Korea. Mankind has survived mainly because mutual nuclear deterrence kept it from self-destructive wars which were so common in its history. Let me use a metaphor that is not related to geostrategic analysis. Apparently, appalled by the doings of His children who had started two world wars within the lifespan of one generation, God gave mankind the weapon of Armageddon in order to keep it from total self-destruction. 
If cyber weapons are indeed as fatal as many suspect, they may strengthen mutual multilateral deterrence after a period of instability and fears. And then mankind will continue moving towards a new world order.  
Most countries do not want to give up liberalism in trade. In fact now that the United States has withdrawn from the Trans-Pacific Partnership, it initiated several years ago, other countries are trying to recreate it without America. 
This world order will be much freer than the present one, which is already much freer than the previous ones. It becomes increasingly difficult to impose political systems or cultural and human values, and this deeply frustrates the West.  
It will be a dangerous and long journey over the next fifteen years or so. It would be much better to start building a new world order model based on the Greater Eurasian Partnership, which also incorporates Europe, proposed by Russia and supported by China, and on China’s One Belt – One Road initiative supported by Russia. Nothing new is likely to be conceived in the old Atlantic community. 
All nuclear (and probably other major and sovereign) powers should urgently start discussing in earnest how to maintain international strategic stability during the long transition to a new world order. New powers, primarily Eurasian ones, will have to lead the way in this dialogue. The old Russia has collapsed but a new one has emerged and should take its place among them, too. 
However nothing can be achieved without the United States. We can only hope that it will break out of its collective madness sooner or later. Until then it will have to be contained most rigorously. 
If consensus is reached on a new military-political foundation, the future world order may be much better than most of the previous ones. And it may also be beautiful just like my beloved Congress of Vienna of two hundred years ago.
Published in Rossiiskaya Gazeta on September 7, 2017

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The Current State of Affairs

out – phrases/idioms 

The following idioms and expressions use the preposition ‘out’. Each idiom or expression has a definition and two example sentences to help to understand of these ​common idiomatic expressions with ‘out’.

BLOW SOMETHING OUT OF PROPORTION

Definition: exaggerate the importance of an event to make it seem much more important than it actually is
You don’t need to blow your report card out of proportion. You’ll do better next time.

The boss is blowing the drop in sales out of proportion.

BREAK OUT IN TEARS

Definition: begin crying suddenly, usually in an exaggerated matter
Mary broke out in tears as soon as she heard he was leaving her.

My cousin broke out in tears when she learned that he had cancer.

BREAK OUT IN A COLD SWEAT

Definition: become suddenly very nervous about something
I broke out in a cold sweat when I heard they were laying off workers.

The news made him break out in a cold sweat.

COME IN OUT OF THE RAIN

Definition: come inside from outside, used in a friendly manner when inviting someone into your home
Hurry up and come in out of the rain. I’ll make you a nice cup of tea.

She told me to come in out of the rain and warm up.

COME OUT AHEAD

Definition: gain an advantage after a series of events
It was a tough year, but we came out ahead in the end.

I think I’ll come out ahead if I win this bet.

COME OUT OF THE CLOSET

Definition: to state that you are homosexual – modern usage, to admit that you like something that others might find a little unusual – more general usage
Gary came out of the closet last week. His parents took the news well.

OK, I’ll come out of the closet and admit that I love opera.

DOWN AND OUT

Definition: to be in a bad position financially
Ted has been down and out these last few years.

I hope you never have to experience being down and out. It’s no fun!

EAT YOUR HEART OUT

Definition: an expression of jealousy at the fortune of someone else
Hey, eat your heart out! I just won $50,000 in the lotto!

He ate his heart out when he heard that Jim got the position.

FEEL OUT OF PLACE

Definition: not feel comfortable in a situation
I felt a little out of place in my latest position at work.

Many students feel out of place the first few weeks of class.

FORK MONEY OUT

Definition: spend money on something
I forked $100 out for those headphones.

Jennifer doesn’t want to fork out more than $1,000 for the party.

GET OUT OF THE WRONG SIDE OF THE BED

Definition: be in a bad mood for a long time
I must have got out of the wrong side of the bed this morning. Nothing is going well for me today!

Ignore Jane. She got out of the wrong side of the bed this morning.

GO IN ONE EAR AND OUT THE OTHER

Definition: not pay attention to something that has been instructed
I’m afraid his name went in one ear and out the other. Can you tell me his name again?

Unfortunately, what I say just goes in one ear and out the other.

LET THE CAT OUT OF THE BAG

Definition: tell a surprise to someone that one should keep secret
Why did you tell him? You let the cat out of the bag!

Peter let the cat out of the bag a few days early.

LIKE A FISH OUT OF WATER

Definition: to be out of place
I felt like a fish out of water in my new position.

Some students feel like fish out of water for the first few days.

MAKE A MOUNTAIN OUT OF A MOLEHILL

Definition: make something seem much more important than it is, exaggerate the importance of something
Don’t make a mountain out of a molehill. We’ll get by this month and then everything will be OK.

Margret made a mountain out of a molehill. Just ignore her.

ODD MAN OUT

Definition: not belong to a situation, feel strange in a situation
I was the odd man out last night with Tim and Anna. I think they wanted to be alone.

Sometimes I feel like the odd man out no matter how hard I try to fit in.

OUT AND ABOUT

Definition: away from the home
Doug is out and about tonight. I don’t know when he’ll return.

I feel like we need to get out and about.
OUT OF LUCK

Definition: unfortunate, unlucky
You’re out of luck today.

I’m sorry your out of luck. We don’t have anymore.

OUT OF THE BLUE

Definition: suddenly and unexpectedly
Guess who I saw out of the blue? Tim!

The car appeared out of the blue and I barely avoided an accident.

OUT OF THE QUESTION

Definition: not possible under any circumstances
I’m afraid that’s out of the question.

The teacher said that retaking the test was out of the question.

OUT OF TURN

Definition: not in the correct order
She spoke out of turn.

We’ll discuss this grammar point out of turn.

OUT ON A LIMB

Definition: taking a chance, risking something
I’ll go out on a limb and guess that he loves her.

You don’t need to go out on a limb.

PULL OUT ALL THE STOPS

Definition: try as hard as one can
I’m going to pull out all the stops to get this job.

The director pulled out all the stops on this latest marketing campaign.

SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT

Definition: act correctly or stop doing something – usually used as a threat
Tom you’ll have to shape up or ship out.

I told her to shape up or ship out. I’m tired of her excuses.

out – phrases/idioms 

INTJ

INTJ PERSONALITY (“THE ARCHITECT”)

It’s lonely at the top, and being one of the rarest and most strategically capable personality types, INTJs know this all too well. INTJs form just two percent of the population, and women of this personality type are especially rare, forming just 0.8% of the population – it is often a challenge for them to find like-minded individuals who are able to keep up with their relentless intellectualism and chess-like maneuvering. People with the INTJ personality type are imaginative yet decisive, ambitious yet private, amazingly curious, but they do not squander their energy.

Nothing Can Stop the Right Attitude From Achieving Its Goal

With a natural thirst for knowledge that shows itself early in life, INTJs are often given the title of “bookworm” as children. While this may be intended as an insult by their peers, they more than likely identify with it and are even proud of it, greatly enjoying their broad and deep body of knowledge. INTJs enjoy sharing what they know as well, confident in their mastery of their chosen subjects, but owing to their Intuitive (N) and Judging (J) traits, they prefer to design and execute a brilliant plan within their field rather than share opinions on “uninteresting” distractions like gossip.

“You are not entitled to your opinion. You are entitled to your informed opinion. No one is entitled to be ignorant.”
Harlan Ellison
A paradox to most observers, INTJs are able to live by glaring contradictions that nonetheless make perfect sense – at least from a purely rational perspective. For example, INTJs are simultaneously the most starry-eyed idealists and the bitterest of cynics, a seemingly impossible conflict. But this is because INTJ types tend to believe that with effort, intelligence and consideration, nothing is impossible, while at the same time they believe that people are too lazy, short-sighted or self-serving to actually achieve those fantastic results. Yet that cynical view of reality is unlikely to stop an interested INTJ from achieving a result they believe to be relevant.

INTJ personality
In Matters Of Principle, Stand Like a Rock

INTJs radiate self-confidence and an aura of mystery, and their insightful observations, original ideas and formidable logic enable them to push change through with sheer willpower and force of personality. At times it will seem that INTJs are bent on deconstructing and rebuilding every idea and system they come into contact with, employing a sense of perfectionism and even morality to this work. Anyone who doesn’t have the talent to keep up with INTJs’ processes, or worse yet, doesn’t see the point of them, is likely to immediately and permanently lose their respect.

Rules, limitations and traditions are anathema to the INTJ personality type – everything should be open to questioning and reevaluation, and if they see a way, INTJs will often act unilaterally to enact their technically superior, sometimes insensitive, and almost always unorthodox methods and ideas.
This isn’t to be misunderstood as impulsiveness – INTJs will strive to remain rational no matter how attractive the end goal may be, and every idea, whether generated internally or soaked in from the outside world, must pass the ruthless and ever-present “Is this going to work?” filter. This mechanism is applied at all times, to all things and all people, and this is often where INTJ personality types run into trouble.

One Reflects More When Traveling Alone

INTJs are brilliant and confident in bodies of knowledge they have taken the time to understand, but unfortunately the social contract is unlikely to be one of those subjects. White lies and small talk are hard enough as it is for a type that craves truth and depth, but INTJs may go so far as to see many social conventions as downright stupid. Ironically, it is often best for them to remain where they are comfortable – out of the spotlight – where the natural confidence prevalent in INTJs as they work with the familiar can serve as its own beacon, attracting people, romantically or otherwise, of similar temperament and interests.

INTJs are defined by their tendency to move through life as though it were a giant chess board, pieces constantly shifting with consideration and intelligence, always assessing new tactics, strategies and contingency plans, constantly outmaneuvering their peers in order to maintain control of a situation while maximizing their freedom to move about. This isn’t meant to suggest that INTJs act without conscience, but to many Feeling (F) types, INTJs’ distaste for acting on emotion can make it seem that way, and it explains why many fictional villains (and misunderstood heroes) are modeled on this personality type.
INTJ STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

INTJ Strengths

INTJ strengths
Quick, Imaginative and Strategic Mind – INTJs pride themselves on their minds, taking every opportunity to improve their knowledge, and this shows in the strength and flexibility of their strategic thinking. Insatiably curious and always up for an intellectual challenge, INTJs can see things from many perspectives. INTJs use their creativity and imagination not so much for artistry, but for planning contingencies and courses of action for all possible scenarios.
High Self-Confidence – INTJs trust their rationalism above all else, so when they come to a conclusion, they have no reason to doubt their findings. This creates an honest, direct style of communication that isn’t held back by perceived social roles or expectations. When INTJs are right, they’re right, and no amount of politicking or hand-holding is going to change that fact – whether it’s correcting a person, a process, or themselves, they’d have it no other way.
Independent and Decisive – This creativity, logic and confidence come together to form individuals who stand on their own and take responsibility for their own actions. Authority figures do not impress INTJs, nor do social conventions or tradition, and no matter how popular something is, if they have a better idea, INTJs will stand against anyone they have to in a bid to have it changed. Either an idea is the most rational or it’s wrong, and INTJs will apply this to their arguments as well as their own behavior, staying calm and detached from these sometimes emotionally charged conflicts. INTJs will only be swayed by those who follow suit.
Hard-working and determined – If something piques their interest, INTJs can be astonishingly dedicated to their work, putting in long hours and intense effort to see an idea through. INTJs are incredibly efficient, and if tasks meet the criteria of furthering a goal, they will find a way to consolidate and accomplish those tasks. However, this drive for efficiency can also lead to a sort of elaborate laziness, wherein INTJs find ways to bypass seeming redundancies which don’t seem to require a great deal of thought – this can be risky, as sometimes double-checking one’s work is the standard for a reason.
Open-minded – All this rationalism leads to a very intellectually receptive personality type, as INTJs stay open to new ideas, supported by logic, even if (and sometimes especially if) they prove INTJs’ previous conceptions wrong. When presented with unfamiliar territory, such as alternate lifestyles, INTJs tend to apply their receptiveness and independence, and aversion to rules and traditions, to these new ideas as well, resulting in fairly liberal social senses.
Jacks-of-all-Trades – INTJs’ open-mindedness, determination, independence, confidence and strategic abilities create individuals who are capable of doing anything they set their minds to. Excelling at analyzing anything life throws their way, INTJs are able to reverse-engineer the underlying methodology of almost any system and apply the concepts that are exposed wherever needed. INTJs tend to have their pick of professions, from IT architects to political masterminds.
INTJ Weaknesses

INTJ weaknesses
Arrogant – INTJs are perfectly capable of carrying their confidence too far, falsely believing that they’ve resolved all the pertinent issues of a matter and closing themselves off to the opinions of those they believe to be intellectually inferior. Combined with their irreverence for social conventions, INTJs can be brutally insensitive in making their opinions of others all too clear.
Judgmental – INTJs tend to have complete confidence in their thought process, because rational arguments are almost by definition correct – at least in theory. In practice, emotional considerations and history are hugely influential, and a weak point for INTJs is that they brand these factors and those who embrace them as illogical, dismissing them and considering their proponents to be stuck in some baser mode of thought, making it all but impossible to be heard.
Overly analytical – A recurring theme with INTJs is their analytical prowess, but this strength can fall painfully short where logic doesn’t rule – such as with human relationships. When their critical minds and sometimes neurotic level of perfectionism (often the case with Turbulent INTJs) are applied to other people, all but the steadiest of friends will likely need to make some distance, too often permanently.
Loathe highly structured environments – Blindly following precedents and rules without understanding them is distasteful to INTJs, and they disdain even more authority figures who blindly uphold those laws and rules without understanding their intent. Anyone who prefers the status quo for its own sake, or who values stability and safety over self-determination, is likely to clash with INTJ personality types. Whether it’s the law of the land or simple social convention, this aversion applies equally, often making life more difficult than it needs to be.
Clueless in romance – This antipathy to rules and tendency to over-analyze and be judgmental, even arrogant, all adds up to a personality type that is often clueless in dating. Having a new relationship last long enough for INTJs to apply the full force of their analysis on their potential partner’s thought processes and behaviors can be challenging. Trying harder in the ways that INTJs know best can only make things worse, and it’s unfortunately common for them to simply give up the search. Ironically, this is when they’re at their best, and most likely to attract a partner.

INTJ PERSONALITY AND EMOTIONS

INTJs are defined by their confidence, logic, and exceptional decision-making, but all of this hides a turbulent underbelly – their emotions. The very notion of emotional expression is synonymous with irrationality and weakness to many INTJs, a display of poor self-governance and fleeting opinion that can hardly stand up to the enduring light of factual truth.

This mistrust of emotions is understandable, as Feeling (F) is the most weakly developed trait for INTJs – like any complex tool, skilled hands can use it to remarkable effect, while untrained hands make clumsy and dangerous work.
People with the INTJ personality type take pride in remaining rational and logical at all times, considering honesty and straightforward information to be paramount to euphemisms and platitudes in almost all circumstances. In many ways though, these qualities of coolness and detachment aren’t the weapons of truth that they appear to be, but are instead shields designed to protect the inner emotions that INTJs feel. In fact, because their emotions are such an underdeveloped tool, INTJs often feel them more strongly than many overtly emotional types because they simply haven’t learned how to control them effectively.

INTJ personality and emotions
There Is Not a Truth Existing Which I Fear

This is a challenging paradigm for INTJs to manage, especially younger and more Turbulent types who are already less confident than they would like to appear. These feelings are contrary to INTJs’ idea of themselves as paragons of logic and knowledge, and they may go so far as to claim they have no emotions at all. This does not mean that people with the INTJ personality type should be seen as, nor should they aspire to be, cold-blooded and insensitive geniuses living by the mantra that emotions are for the weak. INTJs must understand that this isn’t the case, and isn’t ever going to be.

More mature and Assertive INTJs find more useful ways to manage their feelings. While they will never be comfortable with a truly public display of emotions, INTJs can learn to use them, to channel them alongside their logic to help them achieve their goals. While seemingly contradictory, this can be done in several ways.

Firstly, INTJs are goal-oriented, with long-term ideas founded on sound logic. When something does cause an emotional reaction, good or bad, that energy can be used to further those goals, aiding rational and pre-determined plans. Secondly, emotions are figurative canaries in the coal mine, indicating that something is off even though logic can’t see it yet. These feelings can help INTJs to use their logic to ask questions they may not have thought to ask. “This is upsetting. Why? What can be done to resolve it?”

Question With Boldness

In this way, emotions are not INTJs’ way of addressing a decision, but rather an indication that a decision needs to be addressed. INTJ personalities’ Thinking (T) trait acts as a protective big brother to their Feeling (F) trait – seeing that something has upset the less able sibling, it steps in to take action, letting logic do the talking and resolving the condition rather than complaining about its consequences.

There comes a time though, when logic is simply the wrong tool for the job, when there just isn’t a rational solution to a problem, and it is in these situations that INTJs must use their Feeling (F) trait most clearly. INTJs would do well to practice this from time to time, or at least be aware of it, because however they may try, it is impossible to truly separate emotion from the decision-making process. The fact is that INTJs do feel, and deeply, and this makes them better, not worse.

INTJ RELATIONSHIPS

In romance, people with the INTJ personality type approach things the way they do with most situations: they compose a series of calculated actions with a predicted and desirable end goal – a healthy long-term relationship. Rather than falling head over heels in a whirlwind of passion and romance, INTJs identify potential partners who meet a certain range of pre-determined criteria, break the dating process down into a series of measurable milestones, then proceed to execute the plan with clinical precision.

In a purely rational world, this is a fool-proof methodology – but in reality, it ignores significant details that INTJs are likely to dismiss prematurely, such as human nature. INTJs are brilliantly intellectual, developing a world in their heads that is more perfect than reality. People entering this world need to fit this fantasy, and it can be incredibly difficult for INTJs to find someone up to the task. Needless to say, finding a compatible partner is the most significant challenge most INTJs will face in life.

Politeness Is Artificial Good Humor

Sentiment, tradition, and emotion are INTJs’ Achilles Heel. Social standards like chivalry are viewed by INTJs as silly, even demeaning. The problem is, these standards have developed as a means of smoothing introductions and developing rapport, of managing expectations, the basis of personal relationships. INTJs’ propensity for frank honesty in word and action tends to violate this social contract, making dating especially difficult for them.

As they mature, INTJs will come to recognize these factors as relevant, incorporating pace and emotional availability into their plans. But the meantime can be dangerous, especially for more Turbulent INTJs – if they are shot down too many times they may come to the conclusion that everyone else is simply too irrational, or simply beneath them intellectually. If cynicism takes hold, INTJs may end up falling into the trap of intentionally displaying intellectual arrogance, making solitude their choice rather than happenstance.

Always Remain Cool

The positive side of INTJs’ “giving up” is that they are most attractive when they aren’t trying to be attractive, working in a familiar environment where their confidence and intelligence can be seen in action. Allowing others to come to them is often INTJs’ best strategy, and if they perceive a potential to the relationship, they will spare no effort in developing and maintaining stability and long-term satisfaction.

INTJ romantic relationships
As their relationships develop, INTJs’ partners will find an imaginative and enthusiastic companion, who will share their world and at the same time grant a huge degree of independence and trust. While INTJs may never be fully comfortable expressing their feelings, and may spend more time theorizing about intimacy than engaging in it, they can always be relied upon to think out a mutually beneficial solution to any situation.

INTJs seek strong, deep relationships, and trust their knowledge and logic to ensure that their partner is satisfied, both intellectually and physically.
But when it comes to emotional satisfaction, INTJs are simply out of their element. Not every partner has the sort of fun INTJs do in addressing conflicts and emotional needs as puzzles to be analyzed and solved. Sometimes emotions need to be expressed for their own sake, and putting every outburst under the microscope isn’t always helpful. If this becomes habit, or INTJs think it may, they are capable of simply ending the relationship, rather than dragging things out.

Truth and Morality

INTJs are bewilderingly deep and intelligent people, bringing stability and insight into their romantic relationships. They prize honest, open communication, and all factors of the relationship are open to discussion and change, but this must be reciprocated. INTJs do what they think is right, and sometimes that comes across as cold – it’s important to know that INTJs don’t make these decisions lightly. They spend a tremendous amount of time and energy trying to understand why and how things go wrong, especially if they’ve devoted themselves to the relationship, and they certainly hurt deeply when things fall apart.

The challenge is finding partners who share those same values – though Intuitive (N) types are uncommon, they may be a must for many INTJs, as sharing this trait creates an immediate sense of mutual belonging. Having one or two balancing traits, such as Extraversion (E), Feeling (F), or Prospecting (P) can help to keep a relationship dynamic and growth-oriented by keeping INTJs involved with other people, in touch with their emotions, and open to alternate potentials.
INTJ FRIENDS

People with the INTJ personality type tend to have more success in developing friendships than they do with romantic relationships, but they none-the-less suffer from many of the same setbacks, substituting rational processes for emotional availability. This intellectual distance tends to go both ways, making INTJs notoriously difficult to read and get to know, and making INTJs not want to bother reading anyone they think isn’t on their level. Overcoming these hurdles is often all but impossible without the sort of instant connection made possible by sharing the Intuitive (N) trait.

INTJ friends
No Person Will Complain for Want of Time Who Never Loses Any

INTJs tend to have set opinions about what works, what doesn’t, what they’re looking for, and what they’re not. These discriminating tastes can come across as arrogant, but INTJs would simply argue that it’s a basic filtering mechanism that allows them to direct their attentions where they will do the most good. The fact is that in friendship, INTJs are looking for more of an intellectual soul mate than anything else, and those that aren’t prepared for that kind of relationship are simply boring. INTJs need to share ideas – a self-feeding circle of gossip about mutual friends is no kind of social life for them.

INTJs will keep up with just a few good friends, eschewing larger circles of acquaintances in favor of depth and quality.
Further, having more than just a few friends would compromise INTJs’ sense of independence and self-sufficiency – they gladly give up social validation to ensure this freedom. INTJs embrace this idea even with those who do fit into their social construct, requiring little attention or maintenance to remain on good terms, and encouraging that same independence in their friends.

When it comes to emotional support, INTJs are far from being a bastion of comfort. They actively suppress their own emotions with shields of rationality and logic, and expect their friends to do the same. When emotionally charged situations do come about, INTJs may literally have no clue how to handle them appropriately, a glaring contrast from their usual capacity for decisive self-direction and composure.

But Friendship Is Precious

When they are in their comfort zone though, among people they know and respect, INTJs have no trouble relaxing and enjoying themselves. Their sarcasm and dark humor are not for the faint of heart, nor for those who struggle to read between the lines, but they make for fantastic story-telling among those who can keep up. This more or less limits their pool of friends to fellow Analysts and Diplomat types, as Observant (S) types’ preference for more straightforward communication often simply leaves both parties frustrated.

It’s not easy to become good friends with INTJs. Rather than traditional rules of social conduct or shared routine, INTJs have exacting expectations for intellectual prowess, uncompromising honesty and a mutual desire to grow and learn as sovereign individuals. INTJs are gifted, bright and development-oriented, and expect and encourage their friends to share this attitude. Anyone falling short of this will be labeled a bore – anyone meeting these expectations will appreciate them of their own accord, forming a powerful and stimulating friendship that will stand the test of time.
INTJ PARENTS

Parenting, like so many other person-to-person relationships, is a significant challenge for INTJs. Being so heavily invested in rational thought, logic, and analyzing cause and effect, INTJs are often unprepared for dealing with someone who hasn’t developed these same abilities who they can’t simply walk away from. Luckily, INTJs are uniquely capable of committing to a long-term project, especially one as meaningful as parenthood, with all the intellectual vigor they can muster.

INTJ parents
I Hope Our Wisdom Will Grow With Our Power…

First and foremost, INTJ parents will likely never be able to deliver the sort of warmth and coddling that stereotypes say they should. INTJs are rational, perfectionistic, often insensitive, and certainly not prone to overt displays of physical affection – it will take a clear and conscious effort on their part to curb and adapt these qualities to their children’s needs, especially in the younger years. If they have an especially sensitive child, INTJs risk inadvertently trampling those sensitivities or coming across as cold and uncaring.

Even less sensitive children will need emotional support from time to time, especially as they approach adolescence – INTJs, even more so than other Analyst types, struggle to manage their own emotions in a healthy way, let alone others’. As a result, INTJs tend to avoid “unproductive” emotional support, instead taking a solutions-based approach to resolving issues. This is where INTJs are strongest – assessing a dilemma to find the underlying cause and developing a plan to solve the problem at its source.

INTJ parents don’t just tell their children what to do, though – they prompt them, make them use their own minds so they arrive at the same conclusions, or better ones still.
INTJs also recognize that life is often the best teacher, and they will tend to be fairly liberal, allowing their children to have their own adventures and make their own decisions, further developing these critical thinking skills. This isn’t to say that INTJs parents are lenient – far from it – rather, they expect their children to use their freedom responsibly, and often enough the weight of this expectation alone is enough to lay out understood ground rules. When they need to though, INTJ parents will communicate openly and honestly with their children, believing that knowing the truth is better than not knowing, or worse yet, simply being wrong.

…And Teach Us That the Less We Use Our Power, the Greater It Will Be

If their children are receptive to this approach, INTJ parents will find themselves respected and trusted. INTJs are excellent communicators when they want to be, and will frame problems as opportunities for personal growth, helping their children to establish their own brand of rational thinking and independent problem-solving skills to be applied to more and more complex situations as they grow, building their confidence as they make their own way. INTJs’ ultimate goal as a parent is to ensure that their children are prepared to deal with whatever life throws their way.

All this is the exertion of INTJs’ core philosophy of intelligent self-direction, and in this way they try to mold their children in their own image, working to create capable adults who can go on to use their own minds, solve their own problems, and help their own children in the same way when the time comes. INTJs understand that this can’t happen if they shield their children from every source of ill and harm, but believe that if they give their children the right tools, they won’t have to.
INTJ CAREERS

Professional competence is often the area in which INTJs shine most brilliantly. Their capacity for digesting difficult and complex theories and principles and converting them into clear and actionable ideas and strategies is unmatched by any other type. INTJs are able to filter out the noise of a situation, identifying the core thread that needs to be pulled in order to unravel others’ messes so that they can be rewoven into something at once beautifully intricate and stunningly simple in its function.

The real challenge for INTJs is that in order for their innovative (and to less insightful individuals, seemingly counter-intuitive) ideas to be heard, they need to have a friendly ear to bend, and developing an amiable rapport with authority figures is not exactly in INTJs’ list of core strengths. In their early careers, INTJs will often have to suffer through menial tasks and repeated rejections as they develop their abilities into a skillset that speaks for itself.

INTJs will often find ways to automate routine and mind-numbing tasks, and as they progress, their natural confidence, dedication, and creative intelligence will open the doors to the increased complexity and freedom they crave.
Where’s My Drawing Board?

INTJs tend to prefer to work alone, or at most in small groups, where they can maximize their creativity and focus without repeated interruptions from questioning colleagues and meetings-happy supervisors. For this reason INTJs are unlikely to be found in strictly administrative roles or anything that requires constant dialogue and heavy teamwork. Rather, INTJs prefer more “lone wolf” positions as mechanical or software engineers, lawyers or freelance consultants, only accepting competent leadership that helps in these goals, and rejecting the authority of those who hold them back.

INTJ careers
Their independent attitude and tireless demand for competence mean that INTJs absolutely loathe those who get ahead by seemingly less meritocratic means like social prowess and political connections. INTJs have exceptionally high standards, and if they view a colleague or supervisor as incompetent or ineffective, respect will be lost instantly and permanently. INTJs value personal initiative, determination, insight and dedication, and believe that everyone should complete their work to the highest possible standards – if a schmoozing shill breezes through without carrying their own weight, they may find INTJs’ inventiveness and determination used in a whole new capacity as the winds turn against them.

Timid Men Prefer the Calm

As their careers progress further and their reputation grows, so will the complexity of INTJs’ tasks and projects. INTJs demand progress and evolution, new challenges and theories, and they often accomplish this by pushing into more active strategic positions. While they don’t care for the spotlight, INTJs do enjoy controlling their ideas, and will often expand into low-profile but influential roles as project managers, system engineers, marketing strategists, systems analysts, and military strategists.

But really, INTJs’ vision, creativity, and competence in executing their plans make them viable in just about any career that requires them to think about what they’re doing. While some careers, such as low-level sales and human resources, clearly do not play to their strengths, INTJs are able to build a niche into just about any institution, including their own, that they put their minds to.
INTJ IN THE WORKPLACE

Above all else, INTJs want to be able to tackle intellectually interesting work with minimal outside interference, no more, no less. Time-consuming management techniques like trust-building getaways, progress meetings, and drawn-out, sandwiched criticisms are only going to annoy INTJs – all they need, be they subordinate, colleague, or manager, is to meet their goals with the highest standard of technical excellence and to be surrounded by, if anyone at all, people who share those values.

On paper this makes them appear to be exemplary employees, and in many ways they are, but there are many types, especially those with a combination of the Observant (S) and Feeling (F) traits, who will find a work (or any other) relationship with INTJs extremely challenging. INTJs have a fairly strict code of conduct when it comes to their work, and if they see coworkers valuing social activities and “good enough” workmanship over absolute excellence, it will be a turbulent environment. For this reason, INTJs tend to prefer to work in tight, like-minded groups – a group of one, if necessary.

INTJ Subordinates

INTJs are independent people, and they quickly become frustrated if they find themselves pushed into tightly defined roles that limit their freedom. With the direction of a properly liberal manager, INTJs will establish themselves in a position of expertise, completing their work not with the ambition of managerial promotion, but for its own intrinsic merit. INTJs require and appreciate firm, logical managers who are able to direct efforts with competence, deliver criticism when necessary, and back up those decisions with sound reason.

INTJ workplace habits
Note that it is INTJs’ expectations of their managers that are being defined here, and not the other way around, as with some other personality types. Titles mean little to INTJs – trust and respect are earned, and INTJs expect this to be a two way street, receiving and delivering advice, criticisms and results. INTJs expect their managers to be intelligent enough and strong enough to be able to handle this paradigm. A silent INTJ conveys a lack of respect better than all their challenges ever will.

INTJ Colleagues

Active teamwork is not ideal for people with the INTJ personality type. Fiercely independent and private, INTJs use their nimble minds and insight to deflect personal talk, avoid workplace tension, and create situations where they aren’t slowed down by those less intelligent, less capable, or less adaptable to more efficient methods. Instead, they will likely poke fun by forcing them to read between the lines and making them deal alone with work that could have been easier if they’d only taken INTJs’ suggestions.

INTJs are brilliant analysts, and will likely gather a small handful of trusted colleagues to involve in their brainstorming sessions, excluding those who get too hung up on details, or who otherwise have yet to earn their respect. But more likely, INTJs will simply take the initiative alone – INTJs love embracing challenges and their consequent responsibilities, and their perfectionism and determination usually mean that the work comes out clean and effective, affording INTJs the twin joys of solitude and victory.

INTJ Managers

Though they may be surprised to hear it, INTJs make natural leaders, and this shows in their management style. INTJs value innovation and effectiveness more than just about any other quality, and they will gladly cast aside hierarchy, protocol and even their own beliefs if they are presented with rational arguments about why things should change. INTJs promote freedom and flexibility in the workplace, preferring to engage their subordinates as equals, respecting and rewarding initiative and adopting an attitude of “to the best mind go the responsibilities”, directing strategy while more capable hands manage the day-to-day tactics.

But this sort of freedom isn’t just granted, it’s required – those who are accustomed to just being told what to do, who are unable to direct themselves and challenge existing notions, will have a hard time meeting INTJs’ extremely high standards. Efficiency and results are king to INTJs, and behaviors that undermine these conditions are quashed mercilessly. If subordinates try to compensate for their weakness in these areas by trying to build a social relationship with their INTJ managers, on their heads be it – office gossip and schmoozing are not the way into INTJs’ hearts – only bold competence will do.
INTJ PERSONALITY – CONCLUSION

Few personality types are as mysterious and controversial as INTJs. Possessing intellect and strategic thinking that allow them to overcome many challenging obstacles, INTJs have the ability to both develop and implement a plan for everything, including their own personal growth.

Yet INTJs can be easily tripped up in areas where careful and rational thinking is more of a liability than an asset. Whether it is finding (or keeping) a partner, making friends, reaching dazzling heights on the career ladder or adapting to the unpredictable, INTJs need to put in a conscious effort to develop their weaker traits and additional skills.

INTJ personality
What you have read so far is just an introduction into the complex concept that is the INTJ personality type. You may have muttered to yourself, “wow, this is so accurate it’s a little creepy” or “finally, someone understands me!” You may have even asked “how do they know more about me than the people I’m closest to?”

This is not a trick. You felt understood because you were. We’ve studied how INTJs think and what they need to reach their full potential. And no, we did not spy on you – many of the challenges you’ve faced and will face in the future have been overcome by other INTJs. You simply need to learn how they succeeded.

But in order to do that, you need to have a plan, a personal roadmap. The best car in the world will not take you to the right place if you do not know where you want to go. We have told you how INTJs tend to behave in certain circumstances and what their key strengths and weaknesses are. Now we need to go much deeper into your personality type and answer “why?”, “how?” and “what if?”

This knowledge is only the beginning of a lifelong journey. Are you ready to learn why INTJs act in the way they do? What motivates and inspires you? What you are afraid of and what you secretly dream about? How you can unlock your true, exceptional potential?

INTJ

Pharmacist Jargon Buster

Term Description
5-HT Serotonin, a chemical in the brain that helps to prevent low mood.
AC (before food) AC is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean before food (from the Latin word ‘ante cibum’) when they prescribe medicine. The medicine works best with as little food as possible in the stomach. You could take it one hour before a meal or two hours after a meal.
Acute Acute is a term used to refer to something severe and often sudden, for example you may have an acute reaction to a medication.
Addiction Addiction is not having control over doing, taking or using something harmful. As well as drugs and alcohol, a person can become addicted to sex or gambling.
ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of  symptoms that include attention problems, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. It is often treated with medication including Methylphenidate (Ritalin).
Adolescent Inpatient Unit A hospital for young people (normally 12-18 years old) with serious mental health problems. Young people will usually live in the unit and take part in lots of different activities which are designed to help them understand their mental health problems and find better ways of coping with them.  There is also a team of mental health specialists at the unit who work with young people to help them to feel better.
Adverse effect A side-effect that may be caused by the medicine, and is not part of the good effect that it is supposed to have on your symptoms. An adverse effect could also come from taking too much.
Advocate An Advocate is someone who can offer independent support and advice on getting help with a mental health issue.
Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is a type of Anxiety people feel when they have an intense fear of being caught or trapped in situations when they can’t get help. Agoraphobia can be brought on by repeated panic attacks and over time, if untreated, can lead to the fear of leaving one’s house.
Allergy An ‘over- reaction’ by the body to a medicine, for reasons we do not really understand. It might affect some people but not others. An example is that some people have an allergy to penicillin antibiotics. The symptoms can be very serious, such as breathing problems, and can even cause death if they do not get help straight away.
AMHS: Adult Mental Health Services The name given to NHS Mental Health services for people who are over the age of 18.
Anorexia Nervosa An Eating Disorder characterised by restricting food intake, weight loss and rituals around food. People with Anorexia may believe they are fat when in fact they are very underweight. Anorexia is very dangerous and can be life threatening.
Anti Anxiety Anti-Anxiety medication is a group of drugs which may be used to treat the symptoms of Anxiety. It includes medications such as Olanzapine.
Antidepressant A medicine to help to lift mood by rebalancing chemicals in the brain. There are different groups of antidepressants, like SSRIs (like fluoxetine and citalopram) and tricyclics (like amitriptyline).
Antihistamine A medicine that can be used to treat allergies or hayfever. They sometimes have a side-effect of drowsiness.
Antipsychotic Medicine used to treat psychosis. 
First generation antipsychotics:
Older antipsychotic including haloperidol, chlorpromazine and prochlorperazine. Sometimes called “Typical antipsychotics”.
Second generation antipsychotics:
Newer medicines to treat psychosis including olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole. Sometimes called “Atypical antipsychotics”.
Anxiety Anxiety can make you feel worried, frightened, irritable and fidgety. It can also make you feel sick, give you a stomach-ache and make you want to go to the loo a lot. Everyone feels anxious sometime, but some people have anxiety difficulties, which means that they feel very worried  about things for a lot of the time. This is sometimes treated with medication (See Anti-anxiety).
Anxiolytics Medicines used to treat anxiety including diazepam, lorazepam and alprazolam. Sometimes antipsychotics or betablockers are also used to relieve the symptoms of anxiety.
Approved Mental Health Professional An approved mental health worker is a mental health worker who has received special training to provide help and give assistance to people who are being treated under the Mental Health Act. They can help to assess whether a person needs to be compulsorily detained (sectioned) as part of their treatment.
Assessment
ASD Individuals that are Autistic fall into a spectrum of which range from mild to severe.
Aspergers Aspergers is an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) which is characterised by problems with communication, interacting with others and imagination.
Atypical antipsychotic Newer medicines used to treat psychosis – including olanzapine, quetiapine,  risperidone and aripiprazole. Sometimes called “second generation antipsychotics”.
Autism A development condition that affects how a person communicates and relates to other people and the world around them. Autism is seen a spectrum of conditions (See ASD).
Autoimmune disease An illness where the body’s immune system is fighting against the person’s own body to cause sickness. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes.
Barbiturates Very old group of medicines no longer used for mental health conditions. They are sometimes used in the treatment of epilepsy.
BD (bis die) Twice a day (Latin). Every 12 hours if possible, so an example might be 8am and 8pm.
BDD: Body Dysmorphic Disorder BDD is a condition where people have a distorted view of how they look which causes them a great deal of anxiety. For example they may think that a small, barely noticeable scar is much worse than it is and that everyone is staring at it. BDD can be treated with talking therapies and sometimes medication.
BED: Binge Eating Disorder Binge Eating Disorder is a Eating Disorder where people feel an overwhelming urge to overeat on a regular basis and often eat when they are not hungry or as a reaction to Depression or Anxiety. BEDcan be treated with talking therapies and sometimes medication.
Benefit The good effect that you can get from taking a medicine.
Benzodiazepines A group of medicines used to treat anxiety and sleep problems. Examples are diazepam and lorazepam.
Bereavement Bereavement is a term that describes the feelings you have when someone dies. Bereavement can consist of a whole series of emotions and can be delayed or take a long time to get over fully.
Bipolar Disorder Someone diagnosed with bipolar disorder (formerly known as manic depression) may swing from moods of deep depression to periods of overactive, excited behaviour known as mania. Between these severe highs and lows can be stable times. Bipolar Disorder is often treated using medication.
BPD: Borderline Personality Disorder BPD is something known as a Personality Disorder. People with BPD may have long-term patterns of unstable or turbulent emotions, such as feelings about themselves and others.
Branded medicine A name that the company gives to its medicine. Not the actual medicine name. For example, Prozac® is one brand name for the medicine fluoxetine.
British National Formulary (BNF) Reference book for health professionals about all medicines available in the UK.
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia is an Eating Disorder that is characterised by periods of overeating known as bingeing followed by the sufferer “purging” or getting rid of the food, e.g. making themselves sick. It can be difficult to tell if someone has Bulimia as sufferers often are often a healthy weight or overweight but it is a very dangerous condition and can be life threatening. Bulimia is treated with talking therapies, Antidepressants and sometimes a hospital stay.
CAMHS These are services that are available in every local area to help children and young people who have mental health difficulties. These services can help their families too. Mental health specialists work in teams to make sure that each person gets all the help they need. You can be referred to CAMHS by your GP.
Caps/capsules Medicines that you take by mouth. Often oval shaped to help you swallow them. They may contain gelatin.
Care Co-ordinator A professional who makes sure that all the people involved in your care are working together. You should speak to your Care Coordinator if you are having any issues or questions about your treatment.
Care Plan This is a plan agreed by you, your family and your doctor or the person working with you. It should look at what your needs are, and what is going to happen to meet those needs and help you
Carer A Carer is someone who looks after a person who is ill, frail, disabled or mentally ill. This could be a family member or friend or you may have a carer who you employ to help you.
CAT Cognitive Analytic Therapy. A ‘talking therapy’ which helps you to see how early relationships and experiences have affected how you see yourself, other people and how you behave. It usually takes about 16 weekly sessions and focuses on problems that are important for you.
CBT: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Cognitive behavioural therapy or CBT is a talking therapy involves working with people to help them change their emotions, thoughts, and behaviours. It can be especially helpful for conditions like anxiety, depression and OCD and usually takes 6-12 sessions.
Chemist Pharmacist – health professionals working in community pharmacy shops and hospitals who are trained to give advice about medicines.
Chronic The term chronic means long term and may refer to a mental health condition, e.g. a chronic case of Depression.
Chronic Medication Service (Scotland) A service offered by community pharmacists (chemists) in Scotland for NHS patients who have long term conditions requiring medicines. It includes a repeat prescription service and review of your medicines by the pharmacist.
CMHT: Community Mental Health Team A team of mental health professionals who work together, each with different skills, to provide care for those with mental health issues who are not in hospital.
Community Pharmacy Urgent Supply Service (CPUS) (Scotland) A service for NHS patients in Scotland. The community pharmacist can supply a small amount of medicines for long term illnesses if the doctor is not available (for example at the weekend). A service for NHS patients in Scotland.
Comorbidity Comorbidity is a term used to describe one patient with more than one mental health condition. It can also describe a patient who has a physical illness and a mental health condition.
Confidentiality Any information you give to your doctor or the person looking after you should be kept private, unless there are concerns about your safety, and they should tell you if they are going to share your information with anyone else.
Controlled drug A medicine which is covered by special rules and laws regarding its supply on prescription. These medicines are normally stored in a locked cupboard in the pharmacy or on the hospital ward. Examples include temazepan and methylphenidate.
Controlled release A medicine which is absorbed by the body slowly when it is taken. An example is a controlled release tablet which is taken once every 24 hours (compared to the normal release tablet which is taken two or three times daily).
Counselling Counselling is a talking therapy that usually deals with a recent distressing event. It can last several weeks, or longer, depending on the individual’s needs and response to therapy.
CPA: Care Plan Approach Health providers and social services work together to provide care and treatment to people with mental illness who are not in hospital.  It is made up of four parts – Assessment, Care Plan, Key Worker and Regular reviews.
CPN: Community Psychiatric Nurse Psychiatric nurses who work mostly outside of a hospital, through GPs’ surgeries, community mental health teams, mental health centres or psychiatric units
Crisis How an individual responds to a traumatic event or experience. A person experiencing a crisis may need counselling, support or a review of regular medication.
CTO: Community Treatment Order An order given to a patient when they leave hospital to make sure that they continue treatment. This might involve agreeing to take your medication so you don’t get ill again.
CYPIAPT: Children & Young People Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Children and Young People’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (CYPIAPT) programme aims to improve access to talking therapies in the NHS for young people under the age of 18 by providing more local services and therapists. For over 18s see IAPT.
DBT Dialetical Behavioural Therapy (DBT) is a talking therapy for people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). It is based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and helps you manage your emotions.
Delusions False beliefs that are firmly held, often despite evidence to the contrary. For example you might have a delusion that someone is trying to harm you or your family. Delusions are often a symptom of Psychosis and related conditions and can feel scary but are treatable.
Dependence (drug dependence) Being dependent (on drugs or alcohol for example) means you don’t feel you can function without them. If you have a high level of dependence you may experience withdrawal symptoms when you stop taking them. See also: Addiction.
Depersonalisation Depersonalisation is a  feeling of watching oneself act, while having no control over a situation, objects feel they have changed, and the world has become vague, dreamlike or less real
Depot injection An injection of medicine which is given into the muscle of the arm, leg or buttock. It allows medicine to be released into the body very slowly over weeks or months. Usually depot injections of antipsychotics are given weekly, fortnightly or monthly.
Depressant A medicine or substance which can bring on a low mood. Alcohol can act as a depressant in some people.
Depression Everyone feels sad sometimes but people with depression feel very sad for a long period of time and can see no way forward. Depression is often treated with a combination of talking therapies and medication including Anti-depressants.
Derealisation A feeling of being separated or unfamiliar with your surroundings. Can feel like you are living in a film. Sometimes a feeling of being disconnected with people you know well and care about.
Diagnosis The label given by doctors to a particular set of signs and symptoms. Examples of diagnosis types in the area of mental health include depression, schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder.
Discontinuation symptoms Uncomfortable effects that can happen if you stop a medicine quickly.
Dissociation Dissociation is a term in psychology describing a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from reality. It may be a symptom of a condition such as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) A condition where a person has two or more distinct identities or personality states (alters). DID is a very complex disorder which often has roots in childhood trauma such as abuse.
Dopamine A chemical which is made by the brain. It affects mood, emotions and movement. People with Parkinson’s disease have too little dopamine in the brain. Levels of dopamine can be affected by some medicines for schizophrenia.
Dose The number of tablets or capsules or spoonfuls that you have to take at one time, and how often you have to take it. An example may be ‘One tablet twice a day’.
DSM-V An American book which lists mental health issues and their symptoms to help doctors make a diagnosis. The DSM is not used in the UK where we use the ICD-10 instead.
Dual Diagnosis A term used to describe someone who has both a mental illness and a substance abuse problem such as alcoholism or drug addiction.
Early Intervention It is important to get help for a mental health problem as soon as you can. Early Intervention is a way of picking up the early signs of a mental illness and getting treatment. For example Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIiP) Services.
Eating Disorder The name given to conditions which involves unhealthy eating patterns, most often too little or too much food. Common Eating Disorders include Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa or Binge Eating Disorder (BED).
ECG A medical test which records the electrical activity of the heart. You might have an ECG if you are having chest pains  or an abnormal heart rate. It is a painless procedure that can be carried out by your GP or at a hospital.
eCPA: Electronic Care Plan Approach A Care Plan that is stored online, see CPA.
ECT ECT is a treatment for severe Depression. It involves a small electric current being passed through your brain. It is very rarely used on children and young people.
EDNOS Stands for Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. A diagnosis given for someone who has disordered patterns of eating but does not fit into the full symptom criteria for anorexia nervosa (LINK) or bulimia nervosa (LINK) EDNOS is the most commeon eating disorder diagnosis and includes binge eating disorder.
EEG A medical test which records the electrical activity of the brain. It can be used to diagnose and manage a range of conditions including Epilepsy and Insomnia as well as brain injuries. An EEG is painless, takes 30-45 minutes and rarely causes any side effects.
EIiP A service which works with people after their first experience of psychosis. Services usually work with people aged 14-35 and provide a range of support and treatments which may include medication. See Anti-Psychotics.
Emergency supply A method where a community pharmacist can give a small amount of prescription only medicine without a doctor’s prescription if the doctors surgery is closed. Usually only used at weekends or evenings for medicines that should be taken continuously. The pharmacist can only supply medicines that the patient has been prescribed before by their doctor.
First generation antipsychotic Sometimes known as Typical Antipsychotic. The first group of antipsychotics to be available for patients. They have a different set of side effects to the newer Second Generation Antipsychotics.
Flashback A recurrence of a memory, feeling, or experience from the past, flashbacks can be the result of experiencing or witnessing something traumatic like a crime. They are a common symptom of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and can be distressing to the person experiencing them.
Formal Patient A formal patient is someone is not in hospital voluntarily but has been detained or “sectioned” under the Mental Health Act. See also: Informal patient.
GAD Generalised Anxiety Disorder. A condition where you have anxiety symptoms on most days for many weeks.
Generic medicine A medicine that is an exact copy of an original brand of a medicine. It works in the same way as the original but may be cheaper as the manufacturer does not have to pay for the cost of research of the new medicine.
GP General Practitioner. A doctor who works in a surgery in the local community. Can treat a wide range of illnesses. Will refer people to hospital doctors or outpatient clinics if the illness cannot be treated quickly in the community.
Hallucinations Substances that can cause temporary hallunications (LINK) when taken into the body (eg swallowed, injected or inhaled). Can include some drugs, medicines or herbs.
Home Treatment Team Home treatment (sometimes called Crisis Resolution Services) is a way of helping people at home rather than in hospital when they are having a crisis or struggling with a severe mental health issue.
IAPT: Improving Access to Psychological Therapies The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme aims to improve access to talking therapies in the NHS by providing more local services and therapists. For young people under 18 see CYPIAPT.
ICD International Classification of Diseases – World Health Organization (WHO) system for classifying physical and mental disorders of which ICD-10 is the most recent (1992). See also: DSM-V.
ICU Intensive Care Unit. A ward in a hospital which provides intensive treatment or therapy such as a PICU (Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit).
IM (intramuscular) Some medicines and vaccines are given IM which means they are injected into the muscle by a nurse or doctor. Usually the top of the arm, side of the leg or the buttock area is used.
Informal Patient A patient who has gone into hospital voluntarily and not detained under the Mental Health Act. See also: Formal patient, Sectioning.
Inpatient Someone who stays in hospital to receive care and treatment. People who get treatment outside of hospital are known as Outpatients.
Insomnia Insomnia is difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep for long enough to feel refreshed the next morning. Insomnia is often treated with medication.
IV (intravenous) Some medicines are given IV. This means they are injected directly into a vein. IV medicines act very quickly so they are useful in emergency situations or in a hospital. Some drugs of misuse are also taken this way.
Keyworker This is a named individual who is designated as your main contact and support worker within a service.
Licensed medicine A medicine that has been approved by the health authority of a particular country for use to treat certain illnesses.
Lithium toxicity Lithium is a medicine commonly prescribed to treat bipolar affective disorder. If the dose of lithium is too high the patient can get lithium toxicity. The person will experience side effects from the lithium such as nausea, tremor and kidney problems. The doctor will usually reduce the lithium dose or may stop lithium treatment. People who are prescribed lithium will have regular blood tests to look for early signs of lithium toxicity.
Liquid A form of medicine that allows it to be swallowed from a spoon instead of taken as a tablet or capsule.
Long-acting injection An IM injection that is given weekly, fortnightly or monthly. The medicine is slowly released into the body to avoid the need for daily doses. Some antipsychotics are available as long-acting injections.
Major Depressive Disorder A diagnosis that is sometimes also called “clinical depression” or simply “depression”.(LINK). It is applied when a person has symptoms of low mood consistently for at least two weeks.
Major tranquiliser The old name for antipsychotics.
Mania A name for the “high” stage experienced by people with bipolar disorder.
Manic Depression The old name for Bipolar Disorder.
MAOI Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A type of antidepressant. This group of antidepressants can interact with some foods that contain tyramine. People that are prescribed them have to follow a careful diet.
mcg (microgram) A measure of weight. Some medicines are prescribed in doses of micrograms.
Medicines Use Review (MUR) (England and Wales) A free service offered by community pharmacists. The pharmacist will discuss your medicines with you in private. They will help you with any problems with your medicines, answer questions you may have and help you to get the best from your medicines. Any pharmacist can do this for you but there is a formal scheme for this in England and Wales.
Medium secure unit Medium Secure Units, also known as MSUs, provide hospital care for people with complex mental health problems who may have become involved in the criminal justice system
Mental Health Act The Mental Health Act 1983 is the main Act of Parliament setting out the rights of people receiving mental health services. It allows the hospital to either compel you to be admitted to hospital or prevent you from leaving hospital. Health workers use the law when they believe that it will be a risk to you or to others if you are not in hospital.
mg (milligram) A measure of weight. Some medicines are prescribed in doses of milligrams. There are 1000mg in one gram.
Minor tranquiliser The old name for anxiety treatments.
ml (millilitre) A measure of volume. Some liquid medicines are prescribed in millilitres. There are 1000 ml in one litre.
Mood Disorder A range of conditions which disturb a person’s mood e.g. Depression.
Mood Stabiliser A group of medicines used to treat bipolar affective disorder. They help to balance moods to avoid periods of mania or depression. They are usually taken long term (for several months or years).
Neuroleptics This is the old name for the group of medicines called antipsychotics.
Neurosis Neurosis is the term used to describe anxiety disorders, like anxiety, stress and phobias. A highly neurotic person may find that anxiety and fear becomes so strong that it takes over their life- it is then that the fear develops into a phobia.
New Medicines Service (NMS) This is a service provided by community pharmacies which provides support for people with long-term conditions newly prescribed a medicine to help improve medicines adherence. It is initially focused on particular patient groups and conditions.
NICE The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) – provides national guidance and advice to improve health and social care. 
NOS Not Otherwise Specified. Some people’s symptoms may fit part of but not all of the criteria for a mental health disorder, for example you may have some of the symptoms of Anorexia but not all of them and would be diagnosed with EDNOS.
Occupational Therapist These are therapists who assist individuals to develop the skills they may need, to enable them to live independently. They are often based in hospitals, but some are based at Community Mental Health Centres.
Occupational Therapy Occupational therapy is the assessment and treatment of physical and mental health conditions using specific, purposeful activity to prevent disability and promote independence in all aspects of daily life
OCD Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic (long-term) mental health condition that is usually associated with obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour. OCD is often treated with medication.
OD (once a day) OD is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean once a day when they prescribe medicines.
Off label When medicines are made the drug manufacturer applies for a license which means the medicine has been approved for a specific condition and group of people. ‘Off-label’ use means that the medicine is being used in a way that is different to that described in the licence. Doctors may have found that the medicine works very well for another condition, and the use may be supported by expert groups, but the drug manufacturer has not extended the licence.
OTC-Over the Counter Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are medicines you can buy without a prescription from a shop e.g. paracetamol.
Outpatient If you get mental health treatment in the community you are known as an Outpatient. See also Inpatient.
Overdose An overdose is when a drug is taken in quantities that are larger than recommended, either on purpose or by accident. It can result in serious illness or death. IF YOU HAVE TAKEN AN OVERDOSE on purpose or by accident call 999 immediately.
Panic attack A period of intense anxiety, with feelings of intense fear and alarm and usually physical symptoms such as palpitations (fast heart rate), shortness of breath, sweating, and trembling. Someone who is experiencing a panic attack may feel that they are dying. Sometimes called an anxiety attack.
Paranoia Being paranoid means being suspicious without reason, and believing that others are trying to harm you in some way. Paranoia can be a symptom of several mental health conditions including Psychosis and Schizophrenia.
PC (with or after food) PC is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean after a meal (from the latin word ‘post cibum’) when they prescribe medicines. Some medicines are affected by food and so should be taken at meal times.
Personality Disorder Personality disorders are a range of conditions that affect a person’s thoughts, emotions and behaviour. They are usually not diagnosed under the age of 18 although young people may be given a diagnosis of “emerging personality disorder”. See also Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD).
Pharmacist A pharmacist is a healthcare professional who is a medicines expert and focuses on safe and effective medication use. They can work in a high street pharmacy or in a hospital. See pharmacy.
Pharmacology The study of how medicines act on living organisms. This can lead to new drug discoveries, as well as a better understanding of the way in which the human body works.
Pharmacy Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing medicines. A place where pharmacy is practiced is called a pharmacy, a chemists or a dispensary.
Phobias A persistent fear of a specific thing or situation that compels one to avoid it, despite the awareness and reassurance that it is not dangerous
PICU: Psychiatric Intensive Care A specialist place in a hospital to provide intensive treatment to people with mental health problems for a short period of time. See also ICU: Intensive Care Unit.
PO (by mouth) PO is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean by mouth (from the Latin word ‘per os’) when they prescribe medicines.
PR (per rectum) PR is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean by rectum (from the Latin word ‘per rectum’) when they prescribe medicines.
Prepayment certificate If you usually pay for your prescriptions in England and are prescribed more than three medicines a month, it will work out cheaper to get a prepayment certificate from the NHS. You can buy 3 or 12 month certificates.
Prescription An instruction written by a medical practitioner (usually a doctor) that authorises a patient to be issued with a medicine or treatment. Prescriptions are then taken to a pharmacy to get the medicines dispensed.
PRN (pro re nata) PRN is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean when required (from the latin word ‘pro re nata ’) when they prescribe medicines.
Psychiatrist A medical doctor who is trained in and specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. You may be seen by a Psychiatrist at CAMHS or Adult Mental Health Services.
Psychologist A psychologist is someone trained in psychology, which is defined as the study of mental processes and behaviour. Clinical psychologists have further training in recognising and treating mental health problems.You may be seen by a Psychologist at CAMHS or Adult Mental Health Services.
Psychosis Psychosis is a condition that affects a person’s mind and causes changes to the way that they think, feel and behave.  A person who experiences psychosis may be unable to distinguish between reality and their imagination. Psychosis can be treated by Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIiP) Services and may include taking Anti-Psychotic medication.
Psychotherapist Psychotherapists go deeper than counsellors. The aim is to help you to understand why you feel the way you do, and what lies behind your responses to other people and to things that happen to you. You may be seen by a Psychotherapist at CAMHS or Adult Mental Health Services.
Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is a Talking Therapy that aims to help a person overcome a period of distress. A therapist will spend time helping the person to analyse his or her past experiences to understand what may be the cause of their current feelings of unhappiness and distress.
PTSD: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder A type of anxiety disorder caused after a traumatic event or experience. Someone with PTSD may struggle with flashbacks, nightmares and may avoid situations that remind them of the trauma.
Q [x]h Q [x ]h is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean every x number of hours when they prescribe medicines. The x will be replaced by a number and this is how frequent they want the medicine to be used.
QDS or QID (4x a day) QDS or QID is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean four times a day when they prescribe medicines.
QQH (every 4 hrs) QQH is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean every four hours when they prescribe medicines.
Relapse A relapse occurs when a person is affected again by a condition that affected them in the past. This could be a medical condition such as Depression, Bipolar disorder or an addiction to a drug.
Remission A period in which symptoms are absent or under control. The illness may be said to be “in remission”.
Royal College of Psychiatrists> The Royal College of Psychiatrists is the main professional organisation of psychiatrists in the United Kingdom. See psychiatrists.
SAD light One of the treatments for SAD. This treatment consists of sitting in front of a special bright light for a session each day.
SAD: Seasonal Affective Disorder A type of Depression that occurs at certain times of the year (normally winter). SAD can be treated with talking therapies, medication or a SAD light.
Schizophrenia A condition that includes psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions – where a person finds it hard to distinguish ‘reality’ from their own thoughts and imagination.
Second-generation antipsychotic These are the newer types of antipsychotics, also called atypical antipsychotics. Examples include risperidone, quetiapine and aripiprazole.
Sectioning Doctors can keep you in hospital for assessment or treatment of your mental health if they think you are a danger to yourself or others, and if you are too unwell to make decisions or understand that you need help. They do this by detaining you under a ‘section’ (paragraph) of the Mental Health Act 1983. Putting you under this section is called sectioning.
Secure unit A locked hospital ward. They can be to protect young people who are placing themselves or others at risk of harm through a range of behaviours. The  unit is not used as punishment but to ensure the young people’s safety.
Self-harm/self-injury Self-harm is a way that some people deal with very difficult feelings that build up inside them. People deal with these feelings in different ways. For instance cutting or burning themselves. 
Serotonin Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that helps relay signals from one area of the brain to another. Imbalances of serotonin are involved in Depression.
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a group of symptoms that are associated with too much serotonin in the body. This can occur from a combination of medicines which increase serotonin e.g. antidepressants, or too much of a medicine which increases serotonin e.g. overdose.
Service user Someone who uses or has used health and/or social care services because of illness or health problems. They may also be referred to as a client, patient or consumer.
Short-acting injection Short-Acting injectable medicines work fast and are used by doctors when they need the medication to start working very quickly — like during a crisis episode or hospitalisation. They commonly include lorazepam (a benzodiazepine) and haloperidol (an antipsychotic)
Side effect A symptom from using your medicine that can be uncomfortable. Different people get different side-effects.
Sleep hygiene Sleep hygiene is used to describe all of the day-to-day things you can do which may make you sleep better e.g. having a good bedtime routine.
SNRI: Serotonin Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors SNRIs are a type of antidepressant which works on two chemicals (serotonin and noradrenaline) in the brain. An example is venlafaxine. 
Social Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder (also know as Social Phobia). If you have a social phobia, the thought of being seen in public or appearing at social events can make you feel very anxious and frightened. Like all Anxiety Disorders it can be treated with talking therapies and medication.
SSRI: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRIs are a type of antidepressant which works on serotonin in the brain. Examples include fluoxetine, sertaline or citalopram. citalopram and fluoxetine.
Stigma If something has a negative association attached to it, this is called a stigma. Unfortunately mental illness is still surrounded by stigma despite many media campaigns to help this.
Stimulant Stimulants can be used as legal substances, prescription medicines or illicit drugs. Stimulants include caffeine, nicotine, amphetamine and cocaine. On prescription amphetamines are used for the treatment of ADHD.
Stress People usually feel stressed when they are under a lot of pressure, for example during exams. Feeling stressed can sometimes be a good thing but if people feel stressed a lot they may feel scared, anxious or depressed.
Suicidal ideation Suicidal ideation is a medical term for thoughts about or an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
Suspension This is a formulation of medicines in a lquid form.
Sustained release Sustained release tablets release the active ingredient over an extended period of time, meaning more constant drug levels, fewer side effects and less frequent dosing.
Tabs/tablets This is a formulation of medicines which are taken by mouth.
Talking therapies Therapies such as counselling, CBT, group therapies and psychotherapy in which change is achieved by talking to one or more other people in a controlled environment.
Tardive dyskinesia This is a side effect of long term use of typical antipsychotics which results in abnormal movements.
TDS (3x a day) TDS is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean three times a day when they prescribe medicines.
Therapeutic Community Therapeutic community is a term applied to a participative, group-based approach to long-term Mental illness, Personality disorders(LINK) and Drug addiction. The approach is usually residential, with the clients and therapists living together.
Tics Tics are rapid, repetitive, involuntary contractions of a group of muscles. They can be motor tics (body movement) or vocal (sounds). They may be a symptom of Anxiety or Tourettes.
TID (three times a day) TDS is an abbreviation used by doctors to mean three times a day when they prescribe medicines.
Tourettes Tourette’s syndrome is a condition affecting the brain and nervous system (a neurological condition) that is characterised by involuntary, random sounds and movements, known as tics.
Trichotillomania Trichotillomania is a condition in which people pull their hair out. It may be hair on the head or hair in other places, such as the eyebrows or eyelashes and is related to Anxiety.
Tricyclics This is a type of antidepressant used to treat depressant. Examples includes lofepramine, imipramine and clomipramine.
Trigger and Trigger warning In some publications a “trigger warning” may appear at the beginning of certain articles. These are to warn that the articles contain disturbing themes that may trigger traumatic memories for sufferers. People may view these as a means of protecting the mental health of their readers or simply common courtesy. Trigger warnings are also placed at the start of television programmes that contain upsetting images, or flashing lights that could start seizures in people with epilepsy.
Typical antipsychotics Also known as first generation antipsychotics, these are the original or older type of antipsychotics.
Unlicensed When medicines are made the drug manufacturer applies for a license which means the medicine has been approved for a specific condition and group of people. Unlicensed medicines are ones that are do not have a license in the UK. They may be imported from another country where they are licensed, or specially made liquid formulations of a medicine. Unlicensed medicines are only prescribed after careful consideration of other options.
WHO The World Health Organisation is a part of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Withdrawal symptoms Uncomfortable effects that can happen if you stop a medicine quickly.
‘Yellow Card’ system A system for the public and health professionals to report side-effects from medicines.
Z drugs This is a class of medicines that are used for insomnia, if people are having problems sleeping. They should only be used for a short time as they can lead to dependence, and should be used alongside sleep hygiene. Examples include zopiclone and zolpidem.
Pharmacist Jargon Buster

Local Singapore Jokes

Why do the stadium become so hot after the soccer match???
Answer: Because the “fans” are gone.

Who will always got traffic summons while walking??
Answer: All the people who called “Jay”…because they are jaywalking.

What do you call a prawn without legs?
Answer: Lame sia….

Which town in Singapore is the most beautiful??
Clue: One of the MRT stations in the East.
Answer: Tanah Merah. ( because “Dang rang mei la!” means “Of course beautiful lah!”)

Who give Andy Lau a cup of “Forget Love Water?” (Wang Qin Shui)
Answer: Ah Ha
because Ah Ha..gei wo yi bei wang qin shui”
(=Ah Ha…give me a cup of “Forget Love Water.)

At what situation can we have dinner before lunch?
Answer: In a Dictionary ( “D”inner always come before “L”unch)

How would you call when you saw a blind deer?
Answer: No idea…. (Because No Eye Deer)

What do you think will come out from a pampered cow??
Answer: Spoilt Milk

A cake got lost in the jungle. An animal encouraged the cake and help the cake out of the jungle.
What animal was it?
Answer: Pig ( Because Zhu Gu Li Dan Gao = Chocolate Cake.)

Why does lightning hit trees on windy days?
Answer: Because on windy days, the trees “sway”. (= unlucky)

Why can’t you take a photo of a man with a tie?
Answer: Because you cannot take photo with a tie.

You have the mobile numbers of five friends,John,Peter,Jackson,Gilbert and Tommy
You must not call Who?? And Why??
Answer: Jackson. Because “Michael Jackson” (‘Mai’ Call Jackson)

Why is Superman costume so tight?
Answer: Because he always wear Size “S” clothes

Local Singapore Jokes

The return of military national service in Europe

Countries which have long resisted the intellectual fashion to end conscription have been proven right
By Jonathan Eyal, Europe Correspondent, The Straits Times, 6 Mar 2017

European-countries-reintroduce-military-

LONDON • No government enjoys admitting that it got things wrong, and particularly not when it comes to decisions affecting national security. Yet that is precisely what Sweden’s government did recently, when it owned up that a previous decision to abolish military national service was endangering Sweden’s security, and reversed it by reintroducing conscription.

Nor is it the only government to do so; neighbouring Lithuania also reinstated the draft, and a number of other European governments are planning to follow suit. But Europe’s teenagers are returning to the barracks not only because their continent’s stability can no longer be taken for granted, but also because the original decision to abolish national service throughout much of Europe has resulted in a number of negative consequences which few initially predicted.

Either way, the countries which for long have resisted the intellectual fashion to end conscription were proven right, and can now afford to feel vindicated.

Critics of conscription have dominated the debate on this topic for decades, well before the end of the Cold War. Many of their arguments are by now very familiar.

Drafting young people may be a cheap source of manpower for the military, but it is expensive for a national economy since it usually means that draftees embark on their university or professional education at a later stage in their lives and join the labour force at an older age, and that imposes a hidden but nevertheless very real opportunity cost on a country’s well-being.

Conscription, critics argued, can also “brutalise” youth by legitimising violence and conflicting with religious and other personal faith convictions.

It also creates other invidious social divisions which can mark a youngster for the rest of his life: those who fail or avoid the draft for health reasons usually find it difficult to get a high-flying civilian job in countries such as Israel or Finland, where a “clean record” of military service is regarded as a prerequisite for any reputable position.

And, far from being a social leveller, the sons of rich parents still get a better deal than the rest of the population, either by scooping up easy military jobs or, as is the case currently in Russia, by registering for university doctorates which are never completed but provide a permanent deferment from national service.

But the most persuasive arguments against conscription were provided after the end of the Cold War. Allegedly, countries no longer needed large standing militaries; in an age of rapid technological advances, what was the point of having large numbers of kids learning to hold rifles, when what militaries really needed were mature but far fewer soldiers operating sophisticated weapons?

And, since most of the wars which European armed forces anticipated were from now on supposed to take place outside their continent, what was the point of having draftees who are simply too “green” to be dispatched overseas? The answer surely rested – the critics of conscription argued – in smaller, nimbler professional forces.

And European politicians embraced this argument, partly because the abolition of conscription was popular with electorates, but also because politicians bought into the idea that the safety of their countries was no longer a matter of life-and-death, that all future wars in which Western forces would be engaged would be wars of choice rather than of necessity.

National service was, therefore, abolished in one European country after another. And, as is often the case with Europeans, the moment they bought into an idea, they also immediately started preaching it to others: Governments around the world were told that they were “behind the times” if they maintained national service.

What went wrong? Almost everything. To start with, it is worth pointing out that the concept of national service always answered different needs in different countries. In Britain, for instance, conscription was always seen as an exception rather than a rule, a utilitarian exercise to be undertaken only when strictly needed; as astounding as this may seem, the British empire – the largest the world has ever known – was created during the 19th centuries by just career soldiers and mercenaries, while conscription was introduced only in 1916 and abolished by 1960.

In other European countries – and especially those which, unlike Britain, did not have the luxury of being an island – national service was the only method to ensure adequate defence.

But in a few European countries, conscription was more than a defence mechanism; it was an exercise in nation-building, a ritual and repeated act of commitment to the nation by every successive generation. As a result, proposals that national service should be abolished were rejected by the public itself. The voters of Switzerland, for instance, decisively rejected plans to eliminate the draft no fewer than three times over the past 25 years and, interestingly, each time by bigger majorities.

Nor are they alone. A crushing majority of Austrians rejected the idea of ending the draft in a referendum back in 2013 while in Cyprus, Greece, Denmark and Finland, the debate was less acrimonious but the decision to keep conscription equally strongly held, for largely similar reasons.

Yet even in the countries which ended conscription, problems quickly became apparent. One difficulty is that, paradoxically, the move to a smaller professional force turned out to be more expensive, as soldiers needed to be paid big salaries and long-term financial provisions for their families needed to be factored in.

Another paradoxical difficulty is that the more a country’s economy performs well, the smaller the pool of people available for military recruitment, since youngsters have financial opportunities the military cannot match. France, for instance, has no problem filling its military recruitment quotas because it suffers from big and chronic youth unemployment, but Sweden’s armed forces have not met their recruitment targets in every single year since national service ended there in 2009. The result is that a nation has to choose between a good economy and a poor military, or a good military and a poor economy – not exactly a very enviable choice.

Old strategic certainties have also been dispelled. Russia is now regarded as a threat by most European nations; Swedish military planners recently watched helplessly while Russian aircraft simulated targeted attacks on Stockholm, their capital, in an exercise, for instance.

Meanwhile, the people of Central Europe worry about large concentrations of Russian troops on their borders. War is not imminent in Europe, but it is no longer credible to claim that it is impossible. And it is no longer feasible to claim that a larger military makes no difference in defending national territory; yet again, quantity has a quality all of its own.

However, probably the biggest damage which the end of conscription inflicted on Europe is by creating a dangerous gulf between military commanders and politicians. In the old days of conscripted militaries, most European politicians would have had military experience and, even if this extended no further than national service, it gave politicians and decision-makers an understanding, however rudimentary, of military life, ethos and decision-making.

Sending conscript militaries into battle was also not something governments could do at will, since putting soldiers in harm’s way was unthinkable without forging a broad and firm national consensus at home.

But in the age of professional militaries, politicians feel able to send soldiers to war without obtaining broad domestic support, since few families are impacted by such decisions. And few of the politicians who opt for war genuinely understand what this means; the result is both more European deployments overseas, and more botched ones as well, just about the worst of all worlds.

The return of conscription in some European countries is not an exercise in straight historic backtracking: In all European countries where the topic is either being decided or debated now, the aim is not to return to the past, but to broaden military service to both young men and women on an equal basis, and to recruit selectively, at least to start with.

Still, the episode is an admission that the continent has not been thinking straight about its defence structures – as well as being a reminder to countries like Singapore that resisting intellectual fashions and remaining cautious about ditching existing defence arrangements is usually the best approach

The return of military national service in Europe

The fall of Singapore: Shades of grey

It may be 75 years, but the events and feelings around the fall of Singapore to the Japanese, including the rise of the Indian National Army and Sino-Japan hostilities, still resonate today.
By Walter Woon, Published The Straits Times, 25 Feb 2017

Amid the solemn commemorations of the 75th anniversary of the fall of Singapore to the Japanese during World War II and the controversy over the naming of the Syonan Gallery last week, another anniversary passed unmarked.

On Feb 17, 1942, two days after the British surrendered, the Indian prisoners of war (POWs) were paraded in Farrer Park. The British commanding officer, Colonel Hunt, handed custody of them to Major Fujiwara Iwaichi, who made a short speech in English. Fujiwara was followed on the podium by Captain Mohan Singh, a former officer of the 1/14 Punjabis captured at the Battle of Jitra. After a stirring oration, Mohan Singh declared that they were forming an Indian National Army (INA) to fight for a free India. He asked the assembled POWs whether they would join up. Some 20,000 did so.

There is a tendency to view the fall of Singapore and subsequent events in black and white. In contrast to the war in Europe, which can justifiably be depicted as a struggle to defeat a vicious, evil regime, the war in Asia was much more nuanced. Nothing illustrates the shades of grey more vividly than the history of the INA.

The INA that was formed at Farrer Park was not the first. The Germans had previously established a Free India Legion (Legion Freies Indien) from Indian POWs taken in North Africa. This was done at the instigation of Indian nationalist leader Subhas Chandra Bose, who in an epic escape had made his way from India through Afghanistan and onwards to Germany in 1941.

That Free India Legion was known as the Azad Hind Fauj (Free India Army), the name which the Indian National Army also bore. Bose saw the enemies of Britain as allies in his quest for Indian independence.

Meanwhile, in late 1942, the British had detained nationalist leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawarhalal Nehru in order to quash the Quit India Movement. Thirty British battalions were deployed in the sub-continent on internal security duties. Bose recognised a better opportunity to carry on the fight closer to home. Leaving Europe, he travelled by submarine to Sumatra and thence to Japan.

In July 1943, Bose arrived in Singapore to revitalise the independence struggle. The first INA under Mohan Singh had become moribund due to disagreements with the Japanese over its role. Mohan Singh himself was exiled to Pulau Ubin. A mass rally was held on the Padang. Bose had the gift of oratory. He exuded magnetism. He worked up the crowd to a fever pitch. “Our task will not end until our surviving heroes hold the victory parade on the graveyard of the British Empire – the Lal Qila, the Red Fort of Delhi! Chalo Delhi! On to Delhi!” he declared.

The crowd responded rapturously: “Azad Hind zindabad! Long live Free India!” The Indians called him Netaji, the beloved leader. Among that crowd was the late president S R Nathan, who told me once in conversation how electrifying Netaji was.

On Oct 21, 1943, the Provisional Government of Free India, Azri Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, was proclaimed in the Cathay Building. The INA was to be the instrument for freeing India from British rule. Netaji did not want an army consisting only of POWs. He urged Indians in Malaya and Burma to volunteer. Many of the recruits for the INA came from Singapore. Like it or not, the Azad Hind Fauj is part of our history.

The INA saw action in Burma, where it was decimated at Imphal. When the war ended, the returning British destroyed the INA monument at the Esplanade. To them, the members of the INA were renegades. Three senior officers – Shah Nawaz Khan, Prem Saghal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon – were put on trial at the Red Fort in Delhi at the end of 1945. They were charged with waging war against the King-Emperor. Among counsel for the defence was Nehru. There were demonstrations in India. The three accused were convicted, but the sentences were remitted and they were released. India was in ferment. In January 1947, India became independent.

Bose did not live to see this. He reportedly died in a plane crash in Taiwan on Aug 18, 1945. To the British, he was a traitor. But in his home country, he is considered to be hero enough for Kolkata’s airport to be named the Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport.

HUMAN SIDE OF THE OCCUPATION

In Singapore, memories of the war and Occupation still stir up strong emotions, as the unhappiness over the naming of the Syonan Gallery demonstrates. The atrocities committed by the Japanese Army and Kempeitai are well-documented: the Faculty of Law of the National University of Singapore has set up a Singapore War Crimes Trials portal containing details of the trials. The Sook Ching massacres and the extortion of a $50 million “donation” from the Chinese community left indelible scars.

However, it would be a mistake to view this period only from a single perspective. For many people in occupied Singapore, it probably made little difference whether they were ruled by the British King-Emperor or the Japanese Syowa Emperor. The new rulers did not treat all their subjects equally. The Malays and especially the Indians were courted. The Chinese were persecuted.

Nor were all Japanese uniformly bad. Shinozaki Marmoru, a Japanese civilian official, gave out passes to many who had been caught up in the Sook Ching operation and later assisted people in Singapore to mitigate the rigours of the Occupation. There were also many who found that their Japanese superiors were human, and even humane; former president Nathan was one. My father-in-law was another.

My uncle, Professor Kiang Ai Kim, said in an oral history interview that the Occupation was not as oppressive as is normally depicted; as long as one kept out of politics, the Japanese authorities left people alone.

These voices were muted after the Japanese surrender in 1945: firstly out of fear of communist death squads which ran riot in the interregnum between the surrender in August and the return of the British in September; secondly, in order to avoid being accused by the colonial rulers of collaboration with the enemy, as some community leaders had been.

ROOTS OF ETHNIC SUSPICION

The legacy of ethnic suspicion between the Chinese and Malay communities in Malaya has its roots in the period of the Occupation. The main resistance to the Japanese came from the Chinese community. Contrary to the misconceptions of Occidentally-oriented writers, politicians and historians, the war in Asia did not begin when Pearl Harbour was attacked in December 1942. China had been fighting Japanese aggression since 1937. Japanese persecution of the Chinese in Malaya and Singapore was a continuation of that war, as was the resistance mounted by the Malayan Peoples’ Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA), which was overwhelmingly Chinese in composition.

When the Japanese surrendered, the MPAJA came out of the jungle and exacted retribution on “collaborators”, who were often Malays and Indians. There were Chinese-Malay clashes in the peninsula. Fear of being sold out by the British to the Chinese led to the rise of ethnic-Malay nationalism, which continues until today and occasionally roils our bilateral relations with our closest neighbour.

When they saw that the war was lost, the Japanese encouraged nationalism in the former European colonies, not only in Malaya but also in the Dutch East Indies. This is not to accept the revisionist view of Japanese ultra-nationalists, disturbingly expressed in the museum at the Yasukuni Shrine, that Japan gave freedom to the colonised peoples of Asia. The independence of India and Indonesia was not a Japanese war aim; it was a side-effect of Japan’s defeat.

If Japan had won, Singapore, Malaya and Indonesia would have remained under Japanese rule like Shantung and the Caroline, Marshall and Mariana Islands which had been taken over from Germany after World War I. In a supreme irony, the British used Indian troops to help restore Dutch colonial rule in Indonesia in late 1945.

The antipathy against the British of the generation that fought to expel the Dutch no doubt contributed much to their opposition to the formation of Malaysia and the undeclared war known as Konfrontasi.

Even today, memories of Konfrontasi can disturb our relations with our neighbour, as demonstrated by the controversy over the naming of an Indonesian frigate after two marines who were responsible for the MacDonald House bombing.

CHINA-JAPAN TIES

The most significant legacy of the war is the fraught relationship between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Japan. After the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese learnt from the Western colonial powers that they could gain respect only if they had colonies, Taiwan was annexed after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95; Manchukuo was prised from China in 1932; and in 1937, full-scale war broke out when Japan invaded.

The West has not recognised the sacrifices that China made during that period from 1939-45, nor China’s contribution to the ultimate victory. Had the millions of troops and auxiliaries tied down in China been available for an invasion of India, with the support of the INA, the world would look very different today.

As a great and ancient nation, China deserves and demands respect. China is returning to its historic position in the world after a century of humiliation. The arguments over specks of land in the East China Sea are part of that process of adjustment.

History makes the dispute between China and Japan over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands so much more intractable. If, heaven forbid, hostilities were to break out, where would Singaporeans stand – especially if the PRC evokes the memory of the war and demands that ethnic Chinese take their side against a historic enemy?

Three-quarters of a century may have elapsed since the fall of Singapore, but we still feel the reverberations of that fall today. It started a process that led to the creation of the world we live in now.

History is not just for historians. In order to unpick the knotty problems that face us in the 21st century, it is vital to know how those knots got tied in the first place and to take a dispassionate and nuanced view of a period that still evokes strong passions.

The writer is Chairman, Society of International Law (Singapore) and author of The Devil To Pay, The Devil And The Deep Blue Sea and The Devil’s Circle, novels set in the period from the invasion of Malaya in 1941 to the aftermath of the Japanese surrender in 1945.

The fall of Singapore: Shades of grey

Robert L Mott’s       Nine Components of Sound   

Listed below are nine components that most influence how sound effects are perceived. By modifying or eliminating any one or a combination of these components, the sound effects are changed or totally new sounds are created.  
“Music components”:   
Pitch 

Timbre

Harmonics

Loudness

Rhythm

“Sound envelope components”:   

Attack

Sustain

Decay

“Record and playback component”:   

Speed 

 

Envelope of sound and Speed: 
Sound design of an atomic bomb detonation

—–

  

Pitch  
The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of the sound. Normally we refer to its pitch.   
Frequencies are grouped as ..  
low (bass) – sounds of thunder and gunshots

midrange – a telephone ringing

high (treble) – small bells and cymbals
   

  

Low frequencies make the sound powerful and warm

Midrange frequencies give sound its energy. 
Humans are most sensitive to midrange frequencies.

High frequencies give a sound its “presence” and life like quality. Presence of a sound enables us to hear it clearly and gives us the feeling that we are close to its origin.

To Bordwell & Thompson’s Terminology: Pitch >

 

—–

 

Timbre  

Timbre is that unique combination of fundamental frequency, harmonics, and overtones that gives each voice, musical instrument, and sound effect its unique coloring and character.   

  
To Bordwell & Thompson’s Terminology: Timbre >

  

—-

 

Harmonics (overtones)  

When a object vibrates it propagates sound waves of a certain frequency. This frequency, in turn, sets in motion frequency waves called harmonics.  
The basic frequency and its resultant harmonics determine the timbre of a sound. The greater the number of harmonics, the more interesting is the sound that is produced.  
It is an object’s ability to vibrate and set up harmonics that determines the pleasantness of the resultant sound. Crystal glass set up harmonics that are more pleasant than harmonics of ordinary glass.  
The combination of fundamental frequency and its harmonics is a complex wave form.   

  
—–

  

Loudness  

The loudness of a sound depends on the intensity of the sound stimulus.   

A dynamite explosion is loader than that of a cap pistol because of the greater amount of air molecules the dynamite is capable of displacing.  

Loudness becomes meaningful only if we are able to compare it with something. The sound of a gunshot may be deafening in a small room, but actually go unnoticed if fired in a subway station when a train is roaring past.  
(A film that use this in the narrative is Sleepers – when a man is shot at the same time as an aircraft is landing) 
“Equal loudness”    

Humans are most sensitive to frequencies in the midrange (250 Hz – 5000 Hz)   
When two sounds, a bass sound and a middle range sound are played at the same decibel, the listener perceive the middle range sound to be louder.  
This is why a clap of thunder in a horror movie may contain something so unweatherlike as a woman’s scream.   

  

 
 To Bordwell & Thompson’s Terminology: loudness >

  

  
—–

 

 

Rhythm 
Rhythm is a recurring sound that alternates between strong and weak elements.  

Wooden pegs, suspended by wires in a wooden frame to suggest the sound of a large group of people marching in order, will be believable if correct rhythm is supplied. If the rhythmic cadence were ignored the wooden pegs would sound like wooden pegs drummed mechanically on a wooden surface.  

 
To Bordwell & Thompson’s Terminology: rhythm >

 

 

 

Envelope of Sound  

An envelope of sound is composed of a sound’s attack, sustain, and decay.  

 

 
(1) Attack  

Sound begins at A and reaches its peak at level B.  

(2) Sustain  

It drops slightly in level and remains steady until C.  
(3) Decay  

When the sound source is removed at C, the sound decays to a point of silence D. 
  

  

 

Attack 

The way a sound is initiated is called attack.  

There are two types of attack: 
fast

slow

Fast attack  

The closer the attack of a sound (A) is to the peak (B) of a sound, the faster its attack is. 

Sounds that have a fast attack are.. 
gunshots

slaps

door slams

Slow attack  

Sounds that have a slow attack take longer to build to the sustain level. 

Sounds that have a slow attack are… 
a dog’s short warning growl prior to bark

stepping on a dry leaf

slowly tearing a sheet of paper

closing a door slowly

an entire thunderclap

 

 The entire thunderclap has a time span of approximately five seconds.  

By starting the sound at point A, the audience is prepared for the impending thunderclap.  
To have a frightening sudden clap of thunder, the slow attack has to be changed to a fast attack.
.  

 

—-

 

Sustain 
Once a sound has reached its peak, the length of time that the sound will sustain is dependent upon the energy from the source vibrations. When the source sound stops, the sound will began to decay. 

Manipulating the sustain time of a sound is yet another way of either modifying a sound or create a totally new one. 
Suppose you got a the sound of an elevator starting, running, and stopping, all within 25 seconds, but the script calls for a scene to be played in an elevator that runs for 60 seconds. Edit the sustain portion – make a it into a loop. (If you got a computer just copy and past) Take care to avoid sudden burst of level changes. 
—-

  

Decay 
The decrease in amplitude when a vibrating force has been removed is called decay. The actual time it takes for a sound to diminish to silence is the decay time. How gradual this sound decays is its rate of decay. 
Listening to a sound tells if it is… 
Indoors (small enclosed area with a great deal of absorbency)
– little decay and with very little or no reverberation 

outdoors (open unconfined area)
– long decay with an echo 

The end of a sound is often referred to as the “tail” of a sound, and conversely, the beginning of a sound is its “head” 

An advice:  

– When ever you are editing a sound, you must allow enough room at the tail for fade. (This includes sound on Internet!!!) 
—-

Speed 

By increasing or decreasing the playback speed you can change the properties of a sound effect.  

Played at twice as fast as the recorded speed .. 
a explosion will sound like a gunshot

a voice will sound like the cartoon chipmunk character

  
Sound of an Atomic Bomb Detonation 

 The accompanying sound should convincingly match the magnitude of the explosion and the seeming deliberate amount of time it take for the cloud to take shape.

Microphones, located many miles from the site of an atomic detonation, are unable to compensate for their distance to the subject. As a result, the sound of the explosion is little more than a rumbling, irritating, hissing noise with no explosive attack.   

What sound will match … 
the roaring power?

the loudness or the attack?

the inordinately long sustain and decay?  

Attack  

– dynamite explosion of a building being detonated  

Sustain and Decay  

– roar of a huge waterfall 
Speed  

– dynamite explosion and waterfall roar [1] at slow speed   

  

In utilizing the components of a sound to create other sounds, the step that must be taken is disassociating the names of the sound with the sounds themselves. Although there are millions of names for sounds, the sounds themselves all fall into certain frequency parameters that can be manipulated by the nine components of sound.  
Therefore, the fact that waterfall record was selected is of no consequence. One sound of waterfall is much the same as any other waterfall sound. The only thing that are interesting in as far as sound effects are concerned is the magnitude of the waterfall – its roaring power. (The actual sound source may even be a train roaring through a station.) 
Because this sound offer no identification other than a constant roar it can readily be adapted for other sounds.  
When a believable sound is matched to a picture there is never any doubt in anyone’s mind that the sound is not authentic. If the sound is a shade to fast or slow, it will cause many viewers to think that “something” was not quite right.  
Not one viewer, not one critic, not even the scientists who actually developed the bomb complained about this odd mixture of sounds when they appeared on the TV news in the early 1950s. What everyone heard matched convincingly the picture. 
One aspect of this audiovisual phenomena is synchresis.   
  

 
1. A record was slowed from 78 rpm to approximately 30 rpm.    

The basic principle behind this is to slow a sound to the point where it is basically a tone of indistinct noise.  
Edited excerpts  

p 53 -70 “What is sound effect?”

Really?

Correlation Found Between Conversions To Christ And Smooth Song Transitions

No. Of course not. If you really believe the article that was meant to be satirical, you need to put your instrument down and have a really good chat with Him

Really?

2 Excel worksheets in 2 separate windows

How to open 2 Excel (2007 / 2010) worksheets in 2 separate windows

Note: Only if you’re comfortable with editing the Windows registry

Start > run > regedit:

Left column
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT/Excel.Sheet.8/shell/Open/commend:

Right column
Double Click on (Default) and write – “C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office12\EXCEL.EXE” /e “%1”
Right Click on Command – choose “rename” and add something to the name – for example 2 (command2).

Left column
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT/Excel.Sheet.8/shell/Open/ddeexec:
Right Click on the folder ddeexec and choose “rename” and add something to the name – for example 2 (ddeexec2)

Left column
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT/Excel.Sheet.12/shell/Open/command:

Right column
Double Click on (Default) and write – “C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office12\EXCEL.EXE” /e “%1”
Right Click on Command – choose “rename” and add something to the name – for example 2 (command2).

May require a re-association with the Excel.exe program from
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14

2 Excel worksheets in 2 separate windows